Install NextCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 with Apache (LAMP Stack)

This tutorial will be showing you how to install NextCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS with Apache web server.

What’s NextCloud?

NextCloud is a free open-source self-hosted cloud storage solution. It’s functionally similar to Dropbox. Proprietary cloud storage solutions (Dropbox, Google Drive, etc) are convenient, but at a price: they can be used to collect personal data because your files are stored on their computers. If you worry about privacy, you can switch to NextCloud, which you can install on your private home server or on a virtual private server (VPS). You can upload your files to your server via NextCloud and then sync those files to your desktop computer, laptop or smartphone. This way you have full control of your data.

NextCloud Features

  • Free and open-source
  • End-to-end encryption, meaning files can be encrypted on client devices before uploaded to the server, so even if someone steals your server, they can not read your files.
  • Can be integrated with an online office suite (Collobora Online, OnlyOffice) so you can create and edit your doc, ppt, xls files directly from NextCloud.
  • The app store contains hundreds of apps to extend functionality (like calendar app, contacts app, note-taking app, video conferencing app, etc).
  • The sync client is available on Linux, macOS, Windows, iOS and android.


NextCloud is written in PHP programing language. To follow this tutorial, you first need to install LAMP stack on Ubuntu 20.04. If you haven’t already done so, please check out the following tutorial.

You can install NextCloud on your home server or a VPS (virtual private server). You also need a domain name, so later on your will be able to enable HTTPS to encrypt the HTTP traffic. I registered my domain name from NameCheap because the price is low and they give whois privacy protection free for life. Nextcloud can be installed without a domain name, but it really doesn’t make sense if you don’t encrypt the HTTP connection to prevent snooping. I recommend buying a domain name, if you really want to tinker with server software and use them to the fullest potential.

Now let’s install NextCloud.

Step 1: Download NextCloud on Ubuntu 20.04

Log into your Ubuntu 20.04 server. Then download the NextCloud zip archive onto your server. The latest stable version is 18.0.4 at time of this writing. You may need to change the version number. Go to and click the download for server button to see the latest version.

ubuntu 20.04 nextcloud

You can run the following command to download it on your server.


You can always use the above URL format to download NextCloud. If a new version comes out, simply replace 18.0.4 with the new version number.

Once downloaded, extract the archive with unzip.

sudo apt install unzip

sudo unzip -d /var/www/

The -d option specifies the target directory. NextCloud web files will be extracted to /var/www/nextcloud/. Then we need to change the owner of this directory to www-data so that the web server (Apache) can write to this directory.

sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/nextcloud/ -R

Step 2: Create a Database and User for Nextcloud in MariaDB Database Server

Log into MariaDB database server with the following command. Since MariaDB is now using unix_socket plugin to authentication user login, there’s no need to enter MariaDB root password. We just need to prefix the mysql command with sudo.

sudo mysql

Then create a database for Nextcloud. This tutorial name the database nextcloud. You can use whatever name you like.

create database nextcloud;

Create the database user. Again, you can use your preferred name for this user. Replace your-password with your preferred password.

create user nextclouduser@localhost identified by 'your-password';

Grant this user all privileges on the nextcloud database.

grant all privileges on nextcloud.* to nextclouduser@localhost identified by 'your-password';

Flush privileges and exit.

flush privileges;


Create a Database and User for Nextcloud in MariaDB Database Server

Step 3: Create an Apache Virtual Host for Nextcloud

Create a nextcloud.conf file in /etc/apache2/sites-available/ directory, with a command-line text editor like Nano.

sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/nextcloud.conf

Copy and paste the following text into the file. Replace with your own preferred sub-domain. Don’t forget to create DNS A record for this sub-domain in your DNS zone editor. If you don’t have a real domain name, I recommend going to NameCheap to buy one. The price is low and they give whois privacy protection free for life.

<VirtualHost *:80>
        DocumentRoot "/var/www/nextcloud"

        ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/nextcloud.error
        CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/nextcloud.access combined

        <Directory /var/www/nextcloud/>
            Require all granted
            Options FollowSymlinks MultiViews
            AllowOverride All

           <IfModule mod_dav.c>
               Dav off

        SetEnv HOME /var/www/nextcloud
        SetEnv HTTP_HOME /var/www/nextcloud
        Satisfy Any



Save and close the file. (To save a file in Nano text editor, press Ctrl+O, then press Enter to confirm. To exit, press Ctrl+X.)

Then enable this virtual host.

sudo a2ensite nextcloud.conf

Run the following command to enable required Apache modules.

sudo a2enmod rewrite headers env dir mime setenvif ssl

Then test Apache configuration.

sudo apache2ctl -t

If the syntax is OK, reload Apache for the changes to take effect.

sudo systemctl restart apache2

Step 4: Install and Enable PHP Modules

Run the following commands to install PHP modules required or recommended by NextCloud.

sudo apt install imagemagick php-imagick libapache2-mod-php7.4 php7.4-common php7.4-mysql php7.4-fpm php7.4-gd php7.4-json php7.4-curl php7.4-zip php7.4-xml php7.4-mbstring php7.4-bz2 php7.4-intl php7.4-bcmath php7.4-gmp

Reload Apache to use these modules.

sudo systemctl reload apache2

Step 5: Enable HTTPS

Now you can access the Nextcloud web install wizard in your web browser by entering the domain name for your Nextcloud installation.

nextcloud setup wizard

If the web page can’t load, you probably need to open port 80 in firewall.

sudo iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

And port 443 as well.

sudo iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT

Before entering any sensitive information, we should enable secure HTTPS connection on Nextcloud. We can obtain a free TLS certificate from Let’s Encrypt. Install Let’s Encrypt client (certbot) from Ubuntu 20.04 repository.

sudo apt install certbot python3-certbot-apache

Python3-certbot-apache is the Apache plugin. Next, run the following command to obtain a free TLS certificate using the Apache plugin.

sudo certbot --apache --agree-tos --redirect --staple-ocsp --email [email protected] -d


  • –apache2: Use the Apache authenticator and installer
  • –agree-tos: Agree to Let’s Encrypt terms of service
  • –redirect: Enforce HTTPS by adding 301 redirect.
  • –staple-ocsp: Enable OCSP Stapling.
  • –email: Email used for registration and recovery contact.
  • -d flag is followed by a list of domain names, separated by comma. You can add up to 100 domain names.

You will be asked if you want to receive emails from EFF(Electronic Frontier Foundation). After choosing Y or N, your TLS certificate will be automatically obtained and configured for you, which is indicated by the message below.

ubuntu 20.04 nextcloud certbot letsencrypt https

I found that Certbot can’t automatically add HSTS header in the Apache config file for Nextcloud. If you would like to enable HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security), then edit the file.

sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/nextcloud-le-ssl.conf

We can then add the following line in the SSL server block to enable HSTS header.

Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000"

Like below.

nextcloud apache hsts policy

Save and close the file. Then text Apache configurations.

sudo apache2ctl -t

If the test is successful, reload Apache for the change to take effect.

sudo systemctl reload apache2

The above configuration will get A+ score on SSL test.

nextcloud ssl report

Step 6: Finish the Installation in your Web Browser

Now you can access the Nextcloud web install wizard using HTTPS connection.

To complete the installation, you need to create an admin account, enter the path of Nextcloud data folder, enter database details you created in step 2. You can use the default localhost as host address, or you can enter localhost:3306, as MariaDB listens on port 3306.

The data folder is where users’ files are stored. For security, it’s best to place the data directory outside of Nextcloud webroot directory. So instead of storing users’ files under /var/www/nextcloud/data/, we can change it to /var/www/nextcloud-data. which can be created with the following command:

sudo mkdir /var/www/nextcloud-data

Then make sure Apache user (www-data) has write permission to the data directory.

sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/nextcloud-data -R


Click the Finish Setup button, you will see the Web interface of Nextcloud. Congrats! You can start using it as your private cloud storage.


How to Set up NextCloud Email Notification

If your NextCloud instance will be used by more than one person, it’s important that your NextCloud server can send transactional emails, such as password-resetting email. First, you should set an email address for your own account. Go to Settings -> Personal Info and set an email address for your account.

nextcloud email address

Then go to Settings -> Basic settings. You will find the email server settings. There are two send modes: sendmail and smtp. You can choose the sendmail mode if your NextCloud host has an SMTP server running.

nextcloud email server send mode sendmail

If you would like to use an SMTP server running on another host, then choose smtp mode and enter the SMTP server address and login credentials like below. Choose STARTTLS for encryption.

nextcloud email server send mode smtp

For how to set up an email server, please check out the following tutorial. Note that I highly recommend running iRedMail mail server on a fresh clean OS. Installing iRedMail on an OS that has other web applications can fail, and likely break existing applications.

How to Reset Nextcloud User Password From Command Line

If you lost your admin account password, and you didn’t set up email delivery in Nextcloud, then you need to reset the password by running the following command on your server. Replace nextcloud_username with your real username.

sudo -u www-data php /var/www/nextcloud/occ user:resetpassword nextcloud_username

How to Move the Data Directory

In case you need to move the NextCloud data directory, there are 4 steps to accomplish this. First, you need to use the cp command to copy the data directory to the new directory. For example, the mount point of my external hard drive is /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731. I create the new data directory on the external hard drive.

sudo mkdir /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731/nextcloud-data/

Then I copy the original data directory to the new data directory. -R flag means the copy operation is recursive.

sudo cp /var/www/nextcloud-data/* /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731/nextcloud-data/ -R

You also need to copy the .ocdata file.

sudo cp /var/www/nextcloud-data/.ocdata /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731/nextcloud-data/

Next, you need to set www-data (Apache user) as the owner.

sudo chown www-data:www-data /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731/nextcloud-data/ -R

Lastly, you need to edit the config.php file.

sudo nano /var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php

Find the following line and change the value of datadirectory.

'datadirectory' => '/var/www/nextcloud-data',

Save and close the file. Reload NextCloud web page and you are done.

Step 7: Increase PHP Memory Limit

The default PHP memory limit is 128MB. NextCloud recommends 512MB for better performance. To change PHP memory limit, edit the php.ini file.

sudo nano /etc/php/7.4/apache2/php.ini

Find the following line. (line 409)

memory_limit = 128M

Change the value.

memory_limit = 512M

Save and close the file. Alternatively, you can run the following command to change the value without manually opening the file.

sudo sed -i 's/memory_limit = 128M/memory_limit = 512M/g' /etc/php/7.4/apache2/php.ini

Then reload Apache for the changes to take effect.

sudo systemctl reload apache2

If your server has the /etc/php7.4/fpm/php.ini file, that means your server also runs PHP-FPM. I recommend changing the memory_limit in PHP-FPM as well.

sudo nano /etc/php/7.4/fpm/php.ini

Find the memory_limit parameter and change the value. After saving the file, reload PHP-FPM for the change to take effect.

sudo systemctl reload php7.4-fpm

Step 8: Configure Redis Cache for NextCloud

If you go to your NextCloud settings -> overview page, you might see the following warning:

No memory cache has been configured. To enhance your performance please configure a memcache if available.

We will enable memory caching for nextCloud by using Redis. Run the following command to install Redis server from Ubuntu repository.

sudo apt install redis-server

You can check the version with:

redis-server -v

Sample output:

Redis server v=5.0.7 sha=00000000:0 malloc=jemalloc-5.2.1 bits=64 build=636cde3b5c7a3923

Now we can check if redis server is running.

systemctl status redis

nextcloud memory cache redis server

Hint: If the above command didn’t quit immediately, you can press the Q key to gain back control of the terminal.

From the above screenshot, we can see that it’s running and auto-start is enabled. If for any reason it’s not running, execute the following command:

sudo systemctl start redis-server

And if auto-start at boot time is not enabled, you can use the following command to enable it:

sudo systemctl enable redis-server

In order to configure Redis as a cache for nextCloud, we need to install the PHP extension for interfacing with Redis.

sudo apt install php-redis

Check if the extension is enabled.

php --ri redis

php redis extension check

We can see that Redis extension is enabled. If it’s not enabled, run the following command:

sudo phpenmod redis

You may also need to reload Apache if the redis extension is still not enabled.

sudo systemctl reload apache2

Next, edit nextCloud configuration file.

sudo nano /var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php

Add the following lines above the ending ); line.

'memcache.distributed' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
'memcache.locking' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
'redis' => array(
     'host' => 'localhost',
     'port' => 6379,

nextcloud memory cache redis local cache

Save and close the file. Then restart Apache and PHP-FPM.

sudo systemctl restart apache2 php7.4-fpm

Now go to NextCloud settings -> overview page again and refresh the web page, the warning about memory caching should be gone.

Adding Missing Indexes

If you see the following message in the NextCloud Settings -> Overview page,

The database is missing some indexes. Due to the fact that adding indexes on big tables could take some time they were not added automatically.

Then you need to manually add those indexes. Change to the Nextcloud webroot directory.

cd /var/www/nextcloud/

Run the following command to add indexes to the Nextcloud database.

sudo -u www-data php occ db:add-missing-indices


Now if you refresh the NextCloud Settings -> Overview page, the warning about missing indexes should be gone.

Conversion to Big Int

If you see the following message in the NextCloud Settings -> Overview page,

Some columns in the database are missing a conversion to big int. Due to the fact that changing column types on big tables could take some time they were not changed automatically.

Then you need to manually change the column type. Change to the Nextcloud webroot directory.

cd /var/www/nextcloud/

Change your Nextcloud into maintenance mode to prevent users from logging in and making changes.

sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:mode --on

Then run the following command to change the column type.

sudo -u www-data php occ db:convert-filecache-bigint

Once it’s done, switch off the maintenance mode.

sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:mode --off


Now if you refresh the NextCloud Settings -> Overview page, the warning about big int should be gone.

How to Install NextCloud Client on Ubuntu 20.04 Desktop

Run the following commands on Ubuntu 20.04 desktop to install the client from the default repository.

sudo apt install nextcloud-client

NextCloud Client on Ubuntu 20.04

ubuntu 18.04 nextcloud client

Client software for macOS, Windows, Android and iOS can be found on the Nextcloud download page.

How to Enable OnlyOffice/Collabora Online

By default, Nextcloud ships with support for OnlyOffice, which an online office suite that allows you to edit your doc, ppt, xls files directly from NextCloud. We only need to install an app to use this feature. Go to Nextcloud Apps -> Office & Text. Find and enable the community document server app.

nextcloud onlyoffice community document server

Now when you click the add button (+) in Nextcloud, you will be able to create Word, spreadsheet and presentation documents right from your Nextcloud server.

nextcloud online office

nextcloud hub onlyoffice

However, I found this app isn’t very reliable. And the community edition allows only 20 users at most. You need to purchase an enterprise edition if you have more than 20 users. There’s another open-source LibreOffice-based online office suite called Collabora Online that has the same functionality, but without the limitation on the number of users. You can read the following article to integrate it with Nextcloud.

Increase Upload File Size Limit

If you use the Apache PHP module to run PHP script, then there’s no upload file size limit. If you use PHP-FPM to run PHP script, you need to change the file size limit. The default maximum file size for uploading in PHP-FPM is 2MB. To increase the upload size limit, edit the PHP configuration file.

sudo nano /etc/php/7.4/fpm/php.ini

Find the following line (line 846).

upload_max_filesize = 2M

Change the value like below:

upload_max_filesize = 1024M

Save and close the file. Alternatively, you can run the following command to change the value without manually opening the file.

sudo sed -i 's/upload_max_filesize = 2M/upload_max_filesize = 1024M/g' /etc/php/7.4/fpm/php.ini

Then restart PHP-FPM.

sudo systemctl restart php7.4-fpm

Enabling HTTP/2 Protocol

HTTP/2 protocol can greatly improve page loading speed. You can read the following guide to enable HTTP/2 protocol on Apache.

Adding Local DNS Entry

It’s recommended to edit the /etc/hosts file on your Nextcloud server and add the following entry, so that Nextcloud itself won’t have to query the public DNS, which can improve the overall stability. If your Nextcloud server can’t resolve the hostname, then you may encounter a 504 gateway time out error.   localhost

An IP address in the /etc/hosts file can have multiple hostnames, so if you have other applications installed on the same box, you can also add other hostnames or sub-domains on the same line like this:   localhost focal ubuntu

Using Cron to Run Background Jobs

By default, Nextcloud uses AJAX to execute one task with each page load. You can use the more efficient system cron service to run background jobs. Go to Nextcloud Settings -> Basic Settings and select Cron.

Nextcloud Use system cron service to call the cron.php file every 5 minutes

Next, edit the www-data user’s crontab file.

sudo -u www-data crontab -e

Add the following line in this file, so the cron job will run every 5 minutes.

*/5 * * * * php7.4 -f /var/www/nextcloud/cron.php

Save and close the file.

Troubleshooting Tips

If you encounter errors, you can check one of the following log files to find out what’s wrong.

  • Apache error log: /var/log/apache2/error.log
  • Apache error log for the Nextcloud virtual host: /var/log/apache2/nextcloud.error
  • Nextcloud application log: /var/www/nextcloud/data/nextcloud.log

For example, I once had an “Internal Server Error” on my Nextcloud instance and the /var/log/nginx/nextcloud.error file told me that

FastCGI sent in stderr: "PHP message: PHP Fatal error:  Uncaught OC\HintException: [0]: Memcache \OC\Memcache\Redis not available for local cache (Is the matching PHP module installed and enabled?)

It turned out that because I used the ppa:ondrej/php PPA on my Ubuntu server,  I also need to install php7.4-redis in addition to the php-redis package.

Upgrading Nextcloud

It’s important to keep your Nextcloud server up to date with the latest security and bug fixes. Read the tutorial below to learn how to upgrade Nextcloud.

Wrapping Up

I hope this tutorial helped you install NextCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 server with Apache. As always, if you found this post useful, then subscribe to our free newsletter to get more tips and tricks. Take care 🙂

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70 Responses to “Install NextCloud on Ubuntu 20.04 with Apache (LAMP Stack)

  • Hello Xiao
    I love your Post! you are Invaluable as a source for learning. I run Ubuntu 20.04 and 19.10 in Hyper-V with a Pfsense router.
    I am having 3 issues and have tried multiple times following this tutorial
    1) I a syntax error after entering sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/nextcloud.conf

    Require all granted
    Options +FollowSymlinks MultiViews ( If I remove the + the error goes away?)
    AllowOverride All

    2) I noticed that the there is always Nextcloud in front of the Domain name, should it be or just my also in the config, I don’t see localhost used to access Nextcloud for setup purposes and I cannot access my nextcloud instance I have checked with port check port 80 is open. So at that point, I get stuck. can you please help me with this config file.

    3) Before finding your website I signed up with No Ip and have my Domains there for this project and also a Subsonic/Ubuntu project I gave up on for now (Also Didn’t work) I am still relentless after 17 years of Trying Linux to finally learn. I cannot get Letsencrypt to work on any domain I have. all the Ip addresses are current and tied to the Domains

    I know you are a busy guy so I will support you and greatly appreciate your input.

    • I am experiencing the issue you describe in number 2 as well but I found the solution for the first one. Bother of the options have to match, so if FollowSymlinks has a + in front of it, the Multiviews needs one as well. And there is no space between tehe + and the option. I found that one out the hard way.

      • Hi Donald
        Thank you for that information, I will give it a try. how did the rest of the Tutorial go for you? how far did you get?

        • Donald
          10 months ago

          Thank you for asking, Robert. I have been having trouble with getting the site to open. I realize there are some differences I need to use for getting this to work on a server on my internal network that is not using any external DNS resolution, but I am also not able to open the web installation portion using the IP address of the server from my workstation on the same network. I will be trying the /etc/hosts file edit next! I found this tutorial to be way more in-depth than I was looking to go and very useful!

    • 1.) Yes. There’s a typo in the Apache config. There’s no need to add the + character. It’s now corrected.

      2.) If your domain name is used for Nextcloud server only, then you can use If you have other projects, it’s common to use a sub-domain like for each project.

      I don’t recommend using localhost to access Nextcloud. If you have set up other projects on the same server, using localhost will mess them up, because there’s only one localhost, right? You can add a local DNS entry in /etc/hosts file to resolve the domain name or sub-domains locally like below, assuming Nextcloud is installed on your local computer.   localhost

      Then you can type in the web browser address bar to access Nextcloud locally without traversing the Internet.

      3.) I don’t have and can’t use no-ip in my network environment. If you use Dynamic DNS service, generally you need to open TCP port 80 and 443 in your router and set up port forwarding.

      • Hi Xiao
        you are so right about the localhost, I need to fix that. I was able to get an SSL Cert and received an A+ rating. Everything is going a positive direction I can access the Domain on the internet, much more work to do.
        Thank you Again.

  • Can I intigrate postfixadmin users into nextcloud?

  • Stefan Orac
    10 months ago

    Hello Xiao, first and foremost thank you for one of the most comprehensible tutorials on Nextcloud 18 available. I followed your tutorial and managed to get it up and running on Ubuntu Server 18.04 (i have to stick to that version due to other projects.

    Unfortunately I had to skip step8 completely: Whatever I try to do redis-server won’t work.

    I did apt update && aot upgrade but instead of your version 5 i only receive version 4.x – although system tells me it is the latest version. Is this an isdue because I’m still on 18.04? Furthermore the service won’t start. It just does…nothing. Althoug installation (as sudo user) finishes without error thete is no content in redis.conf, so I guess it is broken. I tried it several times (apt remove => apt upgrade => autoremove => fresh install) every time the same result. I also recreated the redis.conf anew by using the official template from the vendor but no luck.

    Do you have any idea what to do or whete to look for the issue in my system?

    • Yes, Ubuntu 18.04 has Redis 4.x.

      Purge your redis server.

      sudo apt purge redis-server

      Reinstall it again.

      sudo apt install redis-server

      If it won’t start, you may want to check the redis log.

      sudo journalctl -eu redis-server

      Or read the log file (/var/log/redis/redis-server.log).

      • Thanks for your help. I completely forgot about purge-command. Finally I was able to reset the installation completely and received a better error log.
        Unfortunately the service is still not running due to this issue:

        redis-server[23675]: Reading the configuration file, at line 301
        redis-server[23675]: >>> 'replica-serve-stale-data yes'
        redis-server[23675]: Bad directive or wrong number of arguments
        systemd[1]: redis-server.service: Control process exited, code=exited status=1
        systemd[1]: redis-server.service: Failed with result 'exit-code'.
        systemd[1]: Failed to start Advanced key-value store.
        systemd[1]: redis-server.service: Service hold-off time over, scheduling restart.
        systemd[1]: redis-server.service: Scheduled restart job, restart counter is at 8.
        systemd[1]: Stopped Advanced key-value store

        I am using the original, unmodified config now that comes with the installation. However at line 301 it states

        slave-serve-stale-data yes

        which is obviously different from the log. I also tried to manually change it to the argument from the log message but to no luck. The installation remains in an unfinished state.

        • Stefan
          10 months ago

          In case anyone runs into the same issue:
          I fixed it by manually downloading the lates and tversion of redis from, run the make command and then the make install and this version did the trick. After having enabled redis on my VPN I could follow the tutorial again and now my Nextcloud 18 has no more warnings and an A+ rating.

  • Hi Xiao
    I’m Stuck! after logging into Nextcloud the User and password worked fine, things went sideways when I tried to create another user to backup my login just in case I forgot the password. When creating the second user verification of the admin. it did not accept my password and now I’m locked out with no Email just stuck.

    • Run the following command on your server to reset the password for Nextcloud user.

      sudo -u www-data php /var/www/nextcloud/occ user:resetpassword nextcloud_username
      • Hi Xiao
        I have tried Different variants of ways to reset the password.
        sudo -u www-data php /var/www/nextcloud/occ user:resetpassword nextcloud_username

        [email protected]:~# sudo -u www-data php /var/www/nextcloud/occ user:resetpassword Robdroid
        Nextcloud is not installed – only a limited number of commands are available

        There are no commands defined in the “user” namespace.

        I also tried playing around with the command
        [email protected]:~# sudo -u www-data php /usr/share/apache2/nextcloud/occ user:resetpassword Robdroid
        Could not open input file: /usr/share/apache2/nextcloud/occ
        [email protected]:~# sudo -u www-data php /usr/share/nextcloud/occ user:resetpassword Robdroid
        Could not open input file: /usr/share/nextcloud/occ
        [email protected]:~# sudo -u www-data php /usr/share/nginx/nextcloud/occ user:resetpassword Robdroid
        Could not open input file: /usr/share/nginx/nextcloud/occ
        [email protected]:~#
        What folder am I looking for?

    • “Nextcloud is not installed.” You cannot reset password if Nextcloud is not installed yet.

  • kongressman
    10 months ago

    Great at all!

  • Mihai A.
    9 months ago

    Hi, love your work.

    Would it be possible to add another “NextCloud Settings -> Overview page” type post that will be adjusted on your guide (Ubuntu 20, lamp, etc) for:

    There are some warnings regarding your setup.
    Your web server is not properly set up to resolve "/.well-known/caldav". Further information can be found in the documentation.
    Your web server is not properly set up to resolve "/.well-known/carddav". Further information can be found in the documentation.

    I was not able to solve it from my end with their guide from
    Thanks for what you are doing.

    Also, my LOGs are filling up with:
    “Trying to access array offset on value of type null at /var/www/nextcloud/3rdparty/leafo/scssphp/src/Compiler.php#5230”

    But is see that this is a known bug, and a fix should come from nextcloud at some point. What is your thought on this?

    • Your /var/www/nextcloud/.htaccess file should have the following lines.

      <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
        RewriteEngine on
        RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} DavClnt
        RewriteRule ^$ /remote.php/webdav/ [L,R=302]
        RewriteRule .* - [env=HTTP_AUTHORIZATION:%{HTTP:Authorization}]
        RewriteRule ^\.well-known/host-meta /public.php?service=host-meta [QSA,L]
        RewriteRule ^\.well-known/host-meta\.json /public.php?service=host-meta-json [QSA,L]
        RewriteRule ^\.well-known/webfinger /public.php?service=webfinger [QSA,L]
        RewriteRule ^\.well-known/nodeinfo /public.php?service=nodeinfo [QSA,L]
        RewriteRule ^\.well-known/carddav /remote.php/dav/ [R=301,L]
        RewriteRule ^\.well-known/caldav /remote.php/dav/ [R=301,L]
        RewriteRule ^remote/(.*) remote.php [QSA,L]
        RewriteRule ^(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates)/.* - [R=404,L]
        RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/\.well-known/(acme-challenge|pki-validation)/.*
        RewriteRule ^(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console).* - [R=404,L]

      And make sure you have enabled the required modules in Apache for Nextcloud.

      sudo a2enmod rewrite headers env dir mime setenvif ssl

      Then restart Apache.

      sudo systemctl restart apache2
  • Samuel G
    9 months ago

    Thank you for this guide!

    I was wondering if you have any insight on what might be my problem. When I go to load up the website (for the first time) I just get the Apache2 IT WORKS site without any errors. If you have any idea what might cause this please let me know!


    • Samuel G
      9 months ago

      Nevermind! After waiting a few minuets it appears to be up and running! Thanks again for the guide.

  • I believe “sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/nextcloud-data -R” should be “sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/nextcloud -R”

    • Never mind I made a mistake

    • i only have a “B” rating god damn it 🙂

    • Edit the /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-apache.conf file and find the following line,

      SSLProtocol             all -SSLv2 -SSLv3

      Change it to

      SSLProtocol             all -SSLv2 -SSLv3 -TLSv1 -TLSv1.1

      This will disable TLSv1.0 and TLSv1.1. Save and close the file. Then restart Apache.

      sudo systemctl restart apache2
  • Hi Guys

    I have put my domain name as ServerName in /etc/apache2/sites-available/nextcloud.conf but when I run the command: sudo apache2ctl -t I get the following message:

    AH00558: apache2: Could not reliably determine the server’s fully qualified domain name, using Set the ‘ServerName’ directive globally to suppress this message
    Syntax OK

    I can confirm that ports 80 and 443 are forwarded and allowed on the firewall…

    Any Suggestions?

    • Apache is complaining about the global ServerName, not the virtual host ServerName.

      By default, Apache uses the system hostname as its global ServerName. If the system hostname can’t be resolved in DNS, then you will probably see the following error after running sudo apache2ctl -t command.

      AH00558: apache2: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message

      To solve this problem, we can set a global ServerName in Apache. Use the Nano command-line text editor to create a new configuration file.

      sudo nano /etc/apache2/conf-available/servername.conf

      Add the following line in this file.

      ServerName localhost

      Save and close the file. To save a file in Nano text editor, press Ctrl+O, then press Enter to confirm. To exit, press Ctrl+X. Then enable this config file.

      sudo a2enconf servername.conf

      Reload Apache for the change to take effect.

      sudo systemctl reload apache2

      Now if you run the sudo apache2ctl -t command again, you won’t see the above error message.

  • So, I have a VM running ubuntu and hosting my site via apache..its a simple static site, and i have another site for a friend thats word press(ignore that site)….I decided to spool up another VM for my nextcloud stuff to keep backups of it webserver is forward out on 80 and 443…my router wont let me do two internal IPs forwarding on ports already in use. I want people to go to and get nextcloud stuff…and for the static site…my registrar has an a record for my subdomain…when i try to install the certificate for cert bot it fails…what am i doing wrong???

    • “My router won’t let me do two internal IPs forwarding on ports already in use.”

      That’s the problem. Your router can forward requests on port 80/443 to only one internal IP address. The Internet can reach only one VM in your network.

    • Also…when i go to localhost in the VM’s browser, i get the default apache page, same result when i go to the IP address form another device on the LAN

      • localhost will bring you the default apache page. That’s not an error.

        If you create a local DNS entry in /etc/localhost file, then enter your Nextcloud domain name in the browser, you will get the Nextcloud page.

  • Thank you for nice tutorial. A few quick comments:

    – Stable version 19.0.0 is available (and maybe the remaining comments below are specific to ver 19).

    – There seem to be some required database settings:

  • Thank you for this information. I have paused my installation at Step 6 before I click finish install because I would like to point the NextCloud Database to a second drive vs the OS drive. I’m assuming I can point it to a new location but would the LAMP Stack still be configured correctly. Any advise on how to do this would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.

  • So maybe I should give you a little more information. One I’m new to Linux, maybe a few months. Two I have this Ubuntu LAMP stack running on my a VM on ESXI 6.7. I use a 1TB SSD for the VMs and then the server has 2 1TB HHDs. One of which I want to point the NextCloud Database to… It has already been set as the second HDD in the VM. This is why I asked the previous question if I point the NextCloud location to a different location will the rest of the stack still work. My guess would be no… But obviously I’m looking forward to your expertise. How many beers would this require? 🙂

    • By “Nextcloud Database” you mean the Nextcloud data directory? The data directory/data folder is not the same as the MariaDB database.

      You can point the data directory to any location, as long as the www-data user has read and write permissions.

      Any amount of beer is appreciated 🙂

  • Ah, understood. I guess I read this statement wrong on their site. I was thinking it meant the data directory is part of the database and both could be set at the time of install.

    “Background. As seen ‘/path/to/nextcloud/data’ is default value/location, if it is not changed during Nextcloud installation process. Nextcloud stores the data directory location and all it’s files locations inside it’s database, that can be chosen during installation as well.”

    Looks like I can finish the install and send you a few beers…

  • SUPER!!!

    Thank you very much.

  • Hello Xiao,
    I am stuck at enabling HTTPS.
    I have bought a domain name from and created “A+ Dynamic DNS Record” with @ for host name and IP address of my local machine for value. I am able to access NextCloud via but when I try to obtain free TLS cert. I get “too many redirect” error message. How do I fix this issue? Currently only host record that I have in Advanced DNS section is “A+ Dynamic DNS Record” that I just created above. If you need more information let me know.

    Thank you.


  • Thank you very much for this tutorial. It was spot on start to finish.

  • Thank you for the tutorial, it was great. Can’t seem to fix the following in backround jobs using cron.

    Last background job execution ran yesterday. Something seems wrong. Check the background job settings


  • dewey straughn
    4 months ago

    Everything worked perfect, THANK YOU! One issue…. The mobile client doesnt seem to be showing my files on the web interface or the desktop client. Any ideas?

  • lavenetz
    4 months ago

    Hi, thanks for the helpful tutorial. But I have an issue when I use the following commands:
    – a2enmod ssl
    – a2ensite default-ssl
    – service apache2 start

    I’ve got the error message:

    [email protected]:~# a2enmod ssl
    Considering dependency setenvif for ssl:
    Module setenvif already enabled
    Considering dependency mime for ssl:
    Module mime already enabled
    Considering dependency socache_shmcb for ssl:
    Module socache_shmcb already enabled
    Module ssl already enabled
    [email protected]:~# a2ensite default-ssl
    Site default-ssl already enabled
    [email protected]:~# service apache2 reload
    apache2.service is not active, cannot reload.
    [email protected]:~# service apache2 start
    Job for apache2.service failed because the control process exited with error code.
    See “systemctl status apache2.service” and “journalctl -xe” for details.
    [email protected]:~# systemctl status apache2.service
    ● apache2.service – The Apache HTTP Server
    Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/apache2.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
    Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Tue 2020-11-03 14:40:03 CET; 42s ago
    Process: 4764 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/apachectl start (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)

    Nov 03 14:40:03 raspi systemd[1]: Starting The Apache HTTP Server…
    Nov 03 14:40:03 raspi apachectl[4767]: AH00526: Syntax error on line 32 of /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/default-ssl.conf:
    Nov 03 14:40:03 raspi apachectl[4767]: SSLCertificateFile: file ‘/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem’ does not exist or is empty
    Nov 03 14:40:03 raspi apachectl[4764]: Action ‘start’ failed.
    Nov 03 14:40:03 raspi apachectl[4764]: The Apache error log may have more information.
    Nov 03 14:40:03 raspi systemd[1]: apache2.service: Control process exited, code=exited, status=1/FAILURE
    Nov 03 14:40:03 raspi systemd[1]: apache2.service: Failed with result ‘exit-code’.
    Nov 03 14:40:03 raspi systemd[1]: Failed to start The Apache HTTP Server.

    Do you know where the problem is? Thanks in advance.

    • You don’t need the default-ssl virtual host. Remove it.

      sudo rm /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/default-ssl.conf

      Restart Apache.

      sudo systemctl restart apache2
  • Hey – I followed the guide to the letter, but I have configured a RAID 1 with mdamd – and that is where I want to store all my data.

    I renamed the volume. Made sure it has write permission.

    Now moving the data folder following your steps results in the following error: Your data directory is invalid Ensure there is a file called “.ocdata” in the root of the data directory.

    Now this is a very common topic on the nextcloud forums for some reason. Think you can give me a hand?

  • Did everything but when browsing the webpage I get the apache “it works” instead of the nextcloud install wizard, literally did everything exactly as it’s explained here. help

  • i did use my own subdomain which is also the server hostname

    • Delete the default virtual host file and restart apache.

      Also run the following command to check the current virtual host configurations. It might give you some clues.

      sudo apache2ctl -S
  • Sorry, didn’t have the time to troubleshoot I just used a script I found in google and after some tinkering everything works now, I’ll give this another try when it’s not urgent, thanks!

    • what kind of script you used? i am having the same issue 🙁

      • i used a script made by daniel hanson ill look it up later and post ut here in case you cant find it

        • Robert
          3 months ago

          This is a quick manual I wrote the source of all of this as well as the script is:

          Quick deployment

          1) Install Ubuntu 20.04
          2) Set server hostname properly (DNS A RECORD FOR SUBDOMAIN NAME, IT SHOULD RESOLVE)
          3) Open ports:
          sudo ufw allow 80
          sudo ufw allow 443
          4) Update and upgrade:
          sudo apt-get update
          sudo apt-get upgrade
          5) Remove built in MySQL:
          sudo apt-get remove mysql-common
          6) Reboot System.
          7) Before doing anything else, create a VM snapshot so you can roll back to this exact point in case something goes wrong during the install.
          8) Download and Run NextCloud Install Script:
          sudo bash -c “$(wget -q -O –”
          9) Login with user ncadmin and execute the following sh file:
          10) You can run the config script again if you need to change configs later:


          You can run the config script in order to modify TLS configuration or automatically renewing the certs:

          Security and integration

          1) On step 8, make sure you properly set up GeoLocation and block all the continents/Countries you don’t want the service being accessed from.

          2) After NextCloud is deployed and accessible from the WebGUI you will need Collabora Online – Built-in CODE Server AND Collabora Online for being able to work with Office documents from the cloud, you can install these from the NextCloud App Store.


          Update script location (Run it for forcing an update or modify if you need to):

          Disable updates:
          sudo crontab -e -u root



          TLS is REQUIRED in order for the WebGUI to load properly, apparently, if you can’t do it on the first run of the install script, you can always try it again later by running again.

          After formatting the SDB drive, it looks as if the script stops responding, just press TAB until the button is highlighted and then press enter to continue.

  • this is an absolute incredible great tutorial, thank you very much. Every single tasks works like a charm. Now I can trash Dropbox and GoogleDrive and host my own, sorry, nextcloud 🙂 Again, thanks!

  • During the certbot part, i get:

    “Connection reset by peer

    To fix these errors, please make sure that your domain name was
    entered correctly and the DNS A/AAAA record(s) for that domain
    contain(s) the right IP address. Additionally, please check that
    your computer has a publicly routable IP address and that no
    firewalls are preventing the server from communicating with the
    client. If you’re using the webroot plugin, you should also verify
    that you are serving files from the webroot path you provided.”

    Any solution to this?

  • You can also not use collabora I ended up using OnlyOffice and then removing the 20 user limitation (replace with another number) by hand:

    Additional method is to install OnlyOffice Community server and tune the connections limit:

    I changed the following in nextcloud/apps/documentserver_community/:

    lib/Controller/StaticController.php (line 92):
    } else if ($this->sessionManager->getSessionCount() >= 20) {

    lib/XHRCommand/AuthCommand.php (line 37):
    const MAX_CONNECTIONS = 20

    If you also want to change the message:
    js/sessionlimit.js:“documentserver”, “The community document server only supports up to 20 concurrent sessions”), {

  • I have a problem with my download and upload speed. Speed between nextcloud server and local machine is something about 3Mb/s and over WAN only like 500kb/s. Can anyone to tell me what I can do?

  • Hi!
    I tryed BBR but it didn’t help. Is there some hairpinnig in linux systemd-resolved? I have three days trying to find a solution but I came up with that, but why this is not working. I have Ubuntu desktop, apache2 and php-fpm.

    • The WAN speed is limited to the uplink speed your ISP gave you.

      • Hi gives to me 40/40 Mbps speed. Maybe nextcloud 20.0.3 and 20.0.4 have some errors or I don’t handle this thing :D. I also tested my mobile phone speed and test give me 25/10Mbs speed.

  • bob yodenson
    2 months ago

    is it possible to remove your https certificate

  • hey, thanks for this great tutorial. I followed all the instructions a couple of days back and everything was perfectly setup. Today i had to restart by Ubuntu server. I now see a 404 error on my webpage. Tried restarting db and apache2. Still doesn’t load anything. Any help will be appreciated. Thanks.

    • update: Solved. Was scrolling across the comments on this page and someone spoke about UFW status. had to re-allow some ports.

  • For Nextcloud 21 on Ubuntu 20.04
    You need to add the following steps for NC 21:

    ## imagick warning
    sudo apt-get install imagemagick php-imagick

    ## default_phone_region:
    sudo nano /var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php

    #just before the closing bracket at the last line
    ‘default_phone_region’ => ‘US’,

    # save and close

    sudo systemctl restart apache2 php7.4-fpm

    # find your region:

  • Van Ngoc Tang
    5 days ago

    Hi Xiao
    I had upgrade manual from ver 20.0.4 to ver 21.0.0 from tutorial below this link
    After that it’s have a problem

    A background job is pending that checks for user imported SSL certificates. Please check back later.

    You have any suggestion for me ?
    Many Thanks

    • You can manually run all pending background jobs with

      sudo -u www-data php7.4 -f /var/www/nextcloud/cron.php
    • By the way, you can use web-based updater app to upgrade to Nextcloud 21. You need to change the update channel to beta, then it will allow you to upgrade to 21.
      2 Ways to Upgrade Nextcloud [Command-Line & GUI]

      • Van Ngoc Tang
        4 days ago

        Thanks for this Support.
        Your meaning is Nextcloud 21.0.0 still Beta ?
        I download and upgrade ver 20.0.4 to ver 21 from link

    • Nextcloud 21 is now the latest stable version, but a major stable release can take some time to be included in the stable update channel, because there might be some apps that don’t have updates for the the major stable release.

      In this case, you need to change the update channel from stable to beta. After the upgrade is complete, you can change back to the stable update channel.

  • Ryan Andreasen
    3 seconds ago

    Thank you for the great tutorial. I am having trouble getting nextcloud to come up when I reboot. I keep getting the generic Apache2 Ubuntu default page. I’m thinking the apache config file but I’m still new to linux. Sorry for the simple question. Thanks

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