Install NextCloud on Ubuntu 22.04 (Nginx + PostgreSQL + PHP8)

This tutorial will be showing you how to install NextCloud on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS with Nginx web server.

What’s NextCloud?

NextCloud is a free open-source self-hosted cloud storage solution. It’s functionally similar to Dropbox. Proprietary cloud storage solutions (Dropbox, Google Drive, etc) are convenient, but at a price: they can be used to collect personal data because your files are stored on their computers. If you are worried about privacy, you can switch to NextCloud, which you can install on your private home server or on a virtual private server (VPS). You can upload your files to your server via NextCloud and then sync those files to your desktop computer, laptop or smartphone. This way you have full control of your data.

NextCloud Features

  • Free and open-source
  • End-to-end encryption, meaning files can be encrypted on client devices before being uploaded to the server, so even if someone steals your server, they can not read your files.
  • Can be integrated with an online office suite (Collobora Online, OnlyOffice) so you can create and edit your doc, ppt, xls files directly from NextCloud.
  • The app store contains hundreds of apps to extend functionality (like calendar app, contacts app, note-taking app, video conferencing app, etc).
  • The sync client is available on Linux, macOS, Windows, iOS, and android.

Requirements

You can install NextCloud on your home server or a VPS (virtual private server).

You also need a domain name, so later on your will be able to enable HTTPS to encrypt the HTTP traffic. I registered my domain name from NameCheap because the price is low and they give whois privacy protection free for life. Nextcloud can be installed without a domain name, but it really doesn’t make sense if you don’t encrypt the HTTP connection to prevent snooping. I recommend buying a domain name if you really want to tinker with server software and use them to the fullest potential.

Now let’s install NextCloud.

Step 1: Download NextCloud on Ubuntu 22.04

Log into your Ubuntu 22.04 server. Then download the NextCloud zip archive onto your server. The latest stable version is 24.0.0 at the time of this writing. Go to https://nextcloud.com/install and click download for server -> Archive file to see the latest version.

ubuntu 22.04 nextcloud

You can run the following command to download it on your server.

wget https://download.nextcloud.com/server/releases/nextcloud-24.0.0.zip

You can always use the above URL format to download NextCloud. If a new version comes out, simply replace 24.0.0 with the new version number.

Install the unzip utility.

sudo apt install unzip

Create the/var/www/ directory and extract the archive file.

sudo mkdir -p /var/www/

sudo unzip nextcloud-24.0.0.zip -d /var/www/

The -d option specifies the target directory. NextCloud web files will be extracted to /var/www/nextcloud/.

Step 2: Create a Database and User for Nextcloud in PostgreSQL

Nextcloud is compatible with PostgreSQL, MariaDB/MySQL, and SQLite. Nextcloud is much faster with PostgreSQL, so we will use PostgreSQL in this tutorial. If you previously install Nextcloud with MariaDB/MySQL database server, you can also migrate to PostgreSQL.

Run the following command to install Postgresql. (PostgreSQL and MariaDB can run on the same server. You don’t need to remove MariaDB.)

sudo apt install -y postgresql postgresql-contrib

Log into PostgreSQL as the postgres user.

sudo -u postgres psql

Create the nextcloud database

CREATE DATABASE nextcloud TEMPLATE template0 ENCODING 'UNICODE';

Create a user (nextclouduser) and set a password.

CREATE USER nextclouduser WITH PASSWORD 'nextclouduser_password';

Grant permissions to the database user.

ALTER DATABASE nextcloud OWNER TO nextclouduser; 

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON DATABASE nextcloud TO nextclouduser;

Press Ctrl+D to log out of the PostgreSQL console.

Create a Database and User for Nextcloud in PostgreSQL

Then run the following command to test if you can log in to PostgreSQL as nextclouduser.

psql -h 127.0.0.1 -d nextcloud -U nextclouduser -W

Press Ctrl+D to log out.

Step 3: Create an Nginx Virtual Host for Nextcloud

Install Nginx web server.

sudo apt install nginx

Create a nextcloud.conf file in /etc/nginx/conf.d/ directory, with a command-line text editor like Nano.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/conf.d/nextcloud.conf

Copy and paste the following text into the file. Replace nextcloud.example.com with your own preferred sub-domain. Don’t forget to create DNS A record for this sub-domain in your DNS zone editor. If you don’t have a real domain name, I recommend going to NameCheap to buy one. The price is low and they give whois privacy protection free for life.

server {
    listen 80;
    listen [::]:80;
    server_name nextcloud.example.com;

    # Add headers to serve security related headers
    add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;
    add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";
    add_header X-Robots-Tag none;
    add_header X-Download-Options noopen;
    add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;
    add_header Referrer-Policy no-referrer;

    #I found this header is needed on Ubuntu, but not on Arch Linux. 
    add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN";

    # Path to the root of your installation
    root /var/www/nextcloud/;

    access_log /var/log/nginx/nextcloud.access;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/nextcloud.error;

    location = /robots.txt {
        allow all;
        log_not_found off;
        access_log off;
    }

    # The following 2 rules are only needed for the user_webfinger app.
    # Uncomment it if you're planning to use this app.
    #rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta /public.php?service=host-meta last;
    #rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta.json /public.php?service=host-meta-json
    # last;

    location = /.well-known/carddav {
        return 301 $scheme://$host/remote.php/dav;
    }
    location = /.well-known/caldav {
       return 301 $scheme://$host/remote.php/dav;
    }

    location ~ /.well-known/acme-challenge {
      allow all;
    }

    # set max upload size
    client_max_body_size 512M;
    fastcgi_buffers 64 4K;

    # Disable gzip to avoid the removal of the ETag header
    gzip off;

    # Uncomment if your server is build with the ngx_pagespeed module
    # This module is currently not supported.
    #pagespeed off;

    error_page 403 /core/templates/403.php;
    error_page 404 /core/templates/404.php;

    location / {
       rewrite ^ /index.php;
    }

    location ~ ^/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)/ {
       deny all;
    }
    location ~ ^/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) {
       deny all;
     }

    location ~ ^/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core/ajax/update|status|ocs/v[12]|updater/.+|ocs-provider/.+|core/templates/40[34])\.php(?:$|/) {
       include fastcgi_params;
       fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.*)$;
       try_files $fastcgi_script_name =404;
       fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
       fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
       #Avoid sending the security headers twice
       fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true;
       fastcgi_param front_controller_active true;
       fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php8.1-fpm.sock;
       fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
       fastcgi_request_buffering off;
    }

    location ~ ^/(?:updater|ocs-provider)(?:$|/) {
       try_files $uri/ =404;
       index index.php;
    }

    # Adding the cache control header for js and css files
    # Make sure it is BELOW the PHP block
    location ~* \.(?:css|js)$ {
        try_files $uri /index.php$uri$is_args$args;
        add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=7200";
        # Add headers to serve security related headers (It is intended to
        # have those duplicated to the ones above)
        add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;
        add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";
        add_header X-Robots-Tag none;
        add_header X-Download-Options noopen;
        add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;
        add_header Referrer-Policy no-referrer;
        # Optional: Don't log access to assets
        access_log off;
   }

   location ~* \.(?:svg|gif|png|html|ttf|woff|ico|jpg|jpeg)$ {
        try_files $uri /index.php$uri$is_args$args;
        # Optional: Don't log access to other assets
        access_log off;
   }
}

Save and close the file. (To save a file in Nano text editor, press Ctrl+O, then press Enter to confirm. To exit, press Ctrl+X.)

We need to change the owner of this directory to www-data so that the web server (Nginx) can write to this directory.

sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/nextcloud/ -R

Then test the Nginx configuration.

sudo nginx -t

If the test is successful, reload Nginx for the changes to take effect.

sudo systemctl reload nginx

Step 4: Install and Enable PHP Modules

The latest version of Nextcloud is compatible with PHP8.1. Run the following commands to install PHP modules required or recommended by NextCloud.

sudo apt install imagemagick php-imagick php8.1-common php8.1-pgsql php8.1-fpm php8.1-gd php8.1-curl php8.1-imagick php8.1-zip php8.1-xml php8.1-mbstring php8.1-bz2 php8.1-intl php8.1-bcmath php8.1-gmp

Step 5: Enable HTTPS

Now you can access the Nextcloud web install wizard in your web browser by entering the domain name for your Nextcloud installation.

nextcloud.example.com

nextcloud setup wizard

If the web page can’t load, you probably need to open port 80 in the firewall.

sudo iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

And port 443 as well.

sudo iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT

Before entering any sensitive information, we should enable secure HTTPS connection on Nextcloud. We can obtain a free TLS certificate from Let’s Encrypt. Install Let’s Encrypt client (certbot) from Ubuntu 22.04 repository.

sudo apt install certbot python3-certbot-nginx

Python3-certbot-nginx is the Nginx plugin. Next, run the following command to obtain a free TLS certificate using the Nginx plugin.

sudo certbot --nginx --agree-tos --redirect --hsts --staple-ocsp --email [email protected] -d nextcloud.example.com

Where:

  • --nginx: Use the Nginx authenticator and installer
  • --agree-tos: Agree to Let’s Encrypt terms of service
  • --redirect: Enforce HTTPS by adding 301 redirect.
  • --hsts: Enable HTTP Strict Transport Security. This defends against SSL/TLS stripping attack.
  • --staple-ocsp: Enable OCSP Stapling.
  • --email: Email used for registration and recovery contact.
  • -d flag is followed by a list of domain names, separated by comma. You can add up to 100 domain names.

You will be asked if you want to receive emails from EFF(Electronic Frontier Foundation). After choosing Y or N, your TLS certificate will be automatically obtained and configured for you, which is indicated by the message below.

ubuntu 20.04 nextcloud certbot letsencrypt https

I found that Certbot may not be able to add HSTS header in the Nginx config file for Nextcloud. If you would like to enable HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security), then edit the file.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/conf.d/nextcloud.conf

We can then add the following line in the SSL server block to enable HSTS header. (If it’s already there, then your configuration are fine.)

add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000" always;

Also, you can enable HTTP2 protocol by adding the option http2, which will speed up webpage loading.

listen [::]:443 ssl http2; # managed by Certbot
listen 443 ssl http2; # managed by Certbot

Like below.

nextcloud ubuntu 22.04 nginx https

Save and close the file. Then text Nginx configurations.

sudo nginx -t

If the test is successful, reload Nginx for the change to take effect.

sudo systemctl reload nginx

The above configuration will get A+ score on SSL test.

nextcloud ssl report

Step 6: Launch the Web-based Setup Wizard in your Web Browser

Now you can access the Nextcloud web install wizard using HTTPS connection.

https://nextcloud.example.com

To complete the installation, you need to

  • Create an admin account
  • Enter the path of the Nextcloud data folder
  • Enter database details you created in step 2. You can use localhost:5432 as host address, as PostgreSQL listens on port 5432.

The data folder is where users’ files are stored. For security, it’s best to place the data directory outside of Nextcloud webroot directory. So instead of storing users’ files under /var/www/nextcloud/data/, we can change it to /var/www/nextcloud-data. which can be created with the following command:

sudo mkdir /var/www/nextcloud-data

Then make sure Nginx user (www-data) has write permission to the data directory.

sudo chown www-data:www-data /var/www/nextcloud-data -R

nextcloud-ubuntu-22.04-install-guide

Click the Install button, and in a few seconds you will see the Web interface of Nextcloud. Congrats! You can start using it as your private cloud storage.

set up nextcloud hub ubuntu nginx

How to Set up NextCloud Email Notification

If your NextCloud instance will be used by more than one person, it’s important that your NextCloud server can send transactional emails, such as password-resetting email. First, you should set an email address for your own account. Go to Settings -> Personal Info and set an email address for your account.

nextcloud email address

Then go to Settings -> Basic settings. You will find the email server settings. There are two send modes: sendmail and smtp. Choose the sendmail mode.

nextcloud email server send mode sendmail

Next, follow the tutorial linked below to set up SMTP relay on Ubuntu.

Once the SMTP relay is configured, click the send email button in Nextcloud to test if email is working.

How to Reset Nextcloud User Password From Command Line

If you lost your admin account password, and you didn’t set up email delivery in Nextcloud, then you need to reset the password by running the following command on your server. Replace nextcloud_username with your real username.

sudo -u www-data php /var/www/nextcloud/occ user:resetpassword nextcloud_username

There are also other commands you might find useful. List available commands with:

sudo -u www-data php /var/www/nextcloud/occ

or

sudo -u www-data php /var/www/nextcloud/console.php

How to Move the Data Directory

In case you need to move the NextCloud data directory, there are 4 steps to accomplish this. First, you need to use the cp command to copy the data directory to the new directory. For example, the mount point of my external hard drive is /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731. I create the new data directory on the external hard drive.

sudo mkdir /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731/nextcloud-data/

Then I copy the original data directory to the new data directory. -R flag means the copy operation is recursive.

sudo cp /var/www/nextcloud-data/* /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731/nextcloud-data/ -R

You also need to copy the .ocdata file.

sudo cp /var/www/nextcloud-data/.ocdata /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731/nextcloud-data/

Next, you need to set www-data (Nginx user) as the owner.

sudo chown www-data:www-data /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731/nextcloud-data/ -R

Lastly, you need to edit the config.php file.

sudo nano /var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php

Find the following line and change the value of datadirectory.

'datadirectory' => '/var/www/nextcloud-data',

Save and close the file. Reload NextCloud web page and you are done.

Step 7: Increase PHP Memory Limit

The default PHP memory limit is 128MB. NextCloud recommends 512MB for better performance. To change PHP memory limit, edit the php.ini file.

sudo nano /etc/php/8.1/fpm/php.ini

Find the following line. (line 409)

memory_limit = 128M

Change the value.

memory_limit = 512M

Save and close the file. Alternatively, you can run the following command to change the value without manually opening the file.

sudo sed -i 's/memory_limit = 128M/memory_limit = 512M/g' /etc/php/8.1/fpm/php.ini

Then reload PHP-FPM service for the changes to take effect.

sudo systemctl reload php8.1-fpm

Step 8: Set Up PHP to Properly Query System Environment Variables

Edit the www.conf file.

sudo nano /etc/php/8.1/fpm/pool.d/www.conf

Find the following line (line 396).

;clear_env = no

Remove the semicolon to uncomment this line.

clear_env = no

Save and close the file. Alternatively, you can run the following command to uncomment this line without manually opening the file.

sudo sed -i 's/;clear_env = no/clear_env = no/g' /etc/php/8.1/fpm/pool.d/www.conf

Then reload PHP-FPM service for the changes to take effect.

sudo systemctl reload php8.1-fpm

Step 9: Increase Upload File Size Limit

The default maximum upload file size limit set by Nginx is 1MB. To allow uploading large files to your NextCloud server, edit the Nginx configuration file for NextCloud.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/conf.d/nextcloud.conf

We have already set the maximum file size in this file, as indicated by

client_max_body_size 512M;

You can change it if you prefer, like 1G.

client_max_body_size 1024M;

Save and close the file. Then reload Nginx for the changes to take effect.

sudo systemctl reload nginx

PHP also sets a limit of upload file size. The default maximum file size for uploading is 2MB. To increase the upload size limit, edit the PHP configuration file.

sudo nano /etc/php/8.1/fpm/php.ini

Find the following line (line 846).

upload_max_filesize = 2M

Change the value like below:

upload_max_filesize = 1024M

Save and close the file. Alternatively, you can run the following command to change the value without manually opening the file.

sudo sed -i 's/upload_max_filesize = 2M/upload_max_filesize = 1024M/g' /etc/php/8.1/fpm/php.ini

Then restart PHP-FPM.

sudo systemctl restart php8.1-fpm

Step 10: Configure Redis Cache for NextCloud

If you go to your NextCloud settings -> overview page, you might see the following warning:

No memory cache has been configured. To enhance your performance please configure a memcache if available.

We will enable memory caching for nextCloud by using Redis. Run the following command to install Redis server from Ubuntu repository.

sudo apt install redis-server

You can check the version with:

redis-server -v

Sample output:

Redis server v=6.0.16 sha=00000000:0 malloc=jemalloc-5.2.1 bits=64 build=a3fdef44459b3ad6

Now we can check if redis server is running.

systemctl status redis

nextcloud-memory-cache-redis-server

Hint: If the above command didn’t quit immediately, you can press the Q key to gain back control of the terminal.

From the above screenshot, we can see that it’s running and auto-start is enabled. If for any reason it’s not running, execute the following command:

sudo systemctl start redis-server

And if auto-start at boot time is not enabled, you can use the following command to enable it:

sudo systemctl enable redis-server

In order to configure Redis as a cache for nextCloud, we need to install the PHP extension for interfacing with Redis.

sudo apt install php8.1-redis

Check if the extension is enabled.

php8.1 --ri redis

php redis extension check

We can see that Redis extension is enabled. If it’s not enabled, run the following command:

sudo phpenmod redis

Next, edit nextCloud configuration file.

sudo nano /var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php

Add the following lines above the ending ); line.

'memcache.distributed' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
'memcache.locking' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis',
'redis' => array(
     'host' => 'localhost',
     'port' => 6379,
     ),

nextcloud memory cache redis local cache

Save and close the file. Then restart Nginx and PHP-FPM.

sudo systemctl restart nginx php8.1-fpm

Now go to NextCloud settings -> overview page again and refresh the web page, the warning about memory caching should be gone.

Adding Missing Indexes

If you see the following message in the NextCloud Settings -> Overview page,

The database is missing some indexes. Due to the fact that adding indexes on big tables could take some time they were not added automatically.

Then you need to manually add those indexes. Change to the Nextcloud webroot directory.

cd /var/www/nextcloud/

Run the following command to add indexes to the Nextcloud database.

sudo -u www-data php occ db:add-missing-indices

The database is missing some indexes

Now if you refresh the NextCloud Settings -> Overview page, the warning about missing indexes should be gone.

Conversion to Big Int

If you see the following message in the NextCloud Settings -> Overview page,

Some columns in the database are missing a conversion to big int. Due to the fact that changing column types on big tables could take some time they were not changed automatically.

Then you need to manually change the column type. Change to the Nextcloud webroot directory.

cd /var/www/nextcloud/

Change your Nextcloud into maintenance mode to prevent users from logging in and making changes.

sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:mode --on

Then run the following command to change the column type.

sudo -u www-data php occ db:convert-filecache-bigint

Once it’s done, switch off the maintenance mode.

sudo -u www-data php occ maintenance:mode --off

Some columns in the database are missing a conversion to big int

Now if you refresh the NextCloud Settings -> Overview page, the warning about big int should be gone.

How to Install NextCloud Client on Ubuntu 22.04 Desktop

Run the following commands on Ubuntu 22.04 desktop to install the client from the default repository.

sudo apt install nextcloud-client

NextCloud Client on Ubuntu 22.04

ubuntu 18.04 nextcloud client

Client software for macOS, Windows, Android and iOS can be found on the Nextcloud download page.

How to Enable OnlyOffice/Collabora Online

By default, Nextcloud ships with support for OnlyOffice, which an online office suite that allows you to edit your doc, ppt, xls files directly from NextCloud. We only need to install an app to use this feature. Go to Nextcloud Apps -> Office & Text. Find and enable the community document server app.

nextcloud onlyoffice community document server

Now when you click the add button (+) in Nextcloud, you will be able to create Word, spreadsheet and presentation documents right from your Nextcloud server.

nextcloud online office

nextcloud hub onlyoffice

However, I found this app isn’t very reliable. And the community edition allows only 20 users at most. You need to purchase an enterprise edition if you have more than 20 users. There’s another open-source LibreOffice-based online office suite called Collabora Online that has the same functionality, but without the limitation on the number of users. You can read the following article to integrate it with Nextcloud.

Adding Local DNS Entry

It’s recommended to edit the /etc/hosts file on your Nextcloud server and add the following entry, so that Nextcloud itself won’t have to query the public DNS, which can improve the overall stability. If your Nextcloud server can’t resolve the nextcloud.example.com hostname, then you may encounter a 504 gateway time out error.

127.0.0.1   localhost nextcloud.example.com

An IP address in the /etc/hosts file can have multiple hostnames, so if you have other applications installed on the same box, you can also add other hostnames or sub-domains on the same line like this:

127.0.0.1   localhost focal ubuntu nextcloud.example.com collabora.example.com

Using Cron to Run Background Jobs

By default, Nextcloud uses AJAX to execute one task with each page load. You can use the more efficient system cron service to run background jobs. Go to Nextcloud Settings -> Basic Settings and select Cron.

Nextcloud Use system cron service to call the cron.php file every 5 minutes

Next, edit the www-data user’s crontab file.

sudo -u www-data crontab -e

Add the following line in this file, so the cron job will run every 5 minutes.

*/5 * * * * php8.1 -f /var/www/nextcloud/cron.php

Save and close the file.

(Optional) Prevent Malicious Login Attempts

If your computer has a static public IP address, you can create an IP whitelist in the Nginx config file.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/conf.d/nextcloud.conf

Add the following lines in the SSL server block to restrict access to the /login URL, so only your IP address can access this URL. Replace 78.56.34.12 with your own IP address.

location ~* ^/login{
       try_files $uri /index.php;
       include fastcgi_params;
       fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.*)$;
       fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
       fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
       #Avoid sending the security headers twice
       fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true;
       fastcgi_param front_controller_active true;
       fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php8.1-fpm.sock;
       fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
       fastcgi_request_buffering off;

       allow 78.56.34.12;
       deny all;
}

Save and close the file. Then test Nginx configuration.

sudo nginx -t

If the test is successful, reload Nginx for the changes to take effect.

sudo systemctl reload nginx

If you don’t have a static IP address on your home network, you can set up a VPN server in a data center.

Troubleshooting Tips

If you encounter errors, you can check one of the following log files to find out what’s wrong.

  • Nginx error log: /var/log/nginx/error.log
  • Nginx error log for the Nextcloud virtual host: /var/log/nginx/nextcloud.error
  • Nextcloud application log: /var/www/nextcloud/data/nextcloud.log

For example, I once had an “Internal Server Error” on my Nextcloud instance and the /var/log/nginx/nextcloud.error file told me that

FastCGI sent in stderr: "PHP message: PHP Fatal error:  Uncaught OC\HintException: [0]: Memcache \OC\Memcache\Redis not available for local cache (Is the matching PHP module installed and enabled?)

It turned out that because I used the ppa:ondrej/php PPA on my Ubuntu server, I also need to install php8.0-redis in addition to the php-redis package.

Upgrading Nextcloud

It’s important to keep your Nextcloud server up to date with the latest security and bug fixes. Read the tutorial below to learn how to upgrade Nextcloud.

Wrapping Up

I hope this tutorial helped you install NextCloud on Ubuntu 22.04 server with Nginx. As always, if you found this post useful, then subscribe to our free newsletter to get more tips and tricks. Take care 🙂

Rate this tutorial
[Total: 28 Average: 4.8]

39 Responses to “Install NextCloud on Ubuntu 22.04 (Nginx + PostgreSQL + PHP8)

  • Hello, great tutorial. How can I migrate Nextcloud database from MariaDB to PostgreSQL?

    Thanks

    • Xiao Guoan (Admin)
      6 months ago

      To switch from MariaDB to PostgreSQL, follow these steps.

      Hint: If you use PHP7.4 with Nextcloud, simply change php8.1 to php7.4. If your Nextcloud is installed under /usr/share/nginx/nextcloud/, then change /var/www/nextcloud/occ to /usr/share/nginx/nextcloud/occ.

      Step 1: Install Postgresql

      sudo apt install -y postgresql postgresql-contrib

      PostgreSQL and MariaDB can run on the same server. You don’t need to remove MariaDB.

      Step 2: Install PostgreSQL PHP module

      sudo apt install php8.1-pgsql

      Step 3: Create Database for NextCloud in PostgreSQL

      Log into PostgreSQL as the postgres user.

      sudo -u postgres psql

      Create the nextcloud database

      CREATE DATABASE nextcloud TEMPLATE template0 ENCODING 'UNICODE';

      Create a user.

      CREATE USER nextclouduser WITH PASSWORD 'nextclouduser_password';

      Grant permissions to the database user.

      ALTER DATABASE nextcloud OWNER TO nextclouduser;
      
      GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON DATABASE nextcloud TO nextclouduser;
      

      Press Ctrl+D to log out of PostgreSQL console.

      Run the following command to test if you can log in to PostgreSQL as nextclouduser.

      psql -h 127.0.0.1 -d nextcloud -U nextclouduser -W

      Step 4: Start the Migration.

      sudo -u www-data php8.1 /var/www/nextcloud/occ db:convert-type --all-apps --password "nextclouduser_password" pgsql nextclouduser localhost nextcloud
      

      Once it’s done, go to Nextcloud web interface settings -> System, scroll down and you will find that Nextcloud is now using PostgreSQL.

      • Isaac Nelson
        3 months ago

        Hello Xiao,

        Greetings from TekConnect!

        Kindly share with me your official email address and WhatsApp contact.

        I will be very grateful to hear from you.

        Thank you.

        Yours sincerely,

        Isaac

      • Thank you Xiao Guoan! Worked perfectly. I exception for me was Step 4 double quotes did not work for the password. I used single quotes as shown.

        sudo -u www-data php /var/www/nextcloud/occ db:convert-type --all-apps --password 'nextclouduser_password' pgsql nextclouduser localhost nextcloud

        Your site is one of my main GOTO sites because your instructions WORK!

      • Hello, how to switch from Apache/mariaDB to Nginx/PostgreSQL?

        Thanks

        • Xiao Guoan (Admin)
          49 mins ago

          You can use the same instructions above to migrate from MariaDB to PostgreSQL. Apache will work with PostgreSQL.

          If you also want to switch from Apache to Nginx, then disable Apache.

          sudo systemctl disable --now apache2

          Next, follow step 3, 4 and 5 in this tutorial to set up Nginx.

  • Great guide as always. I love nginx and somehow they keep using apache. Old habits?

    Thanks Xiao

  • So i installed nextcloud with nginx and gave the required permissions and nextcloud login page appeared when i accessed ‘myip/nextcloud’ but when i clicked ‘Finish Setup’ it gave me a 404 error. Now when accessing ‘myip/nextcloud’ it redirects me to ‘myip/nextcloud/index.php/apps/files’ which gives me a 404 error. I dont have any idea whats wrong here? Can someone help me here?

    • Xiao Guo-An (Admin)
      5 months ago

      Hi,

      The Nginx configuration in this tutorial is for NextCloud on a sub-domain (nextcloud.example.com), not for a sub-directory (example.com/nextcloud). You can always check out Nginx error log to see what’s wrong.

  • Diimaan Balakrishnan
    5 months ago

    PostgreSQL is indeed much faster than MariaDB! Thanks for the migration instructions.

  • Will these instructions work on Ubuntu 20.04 Server?

    • Xiao Guoan (Admin)
      5 months ago

      If you want to migrate from MariaDB to PostgreSQL on Ubuntu 20.04, simply change php8.1 to php7.4.

      If your Nextcloud is installed under /usr/share/nginx/nextcloud/, then change /var/www/nextcloud/occ to /usr/share/nginx/nextcloud/occ.

  • dysonsphere
    5 months ago

    Why nginx over apache?

  • IMRON HS
    5 months ago

    Below is how to fix the Your web server is not properly set up to resolve
    /.well-known/webfinger
    /.well-known/nodeinfo
    error if using NGiNX since everything else I could find was for Apache/HTTPD

    Your web server is not properly set up to resolve "/.well-known/webfinger". Further information can be found in the documentation ↗.
    Your web server is not properly set up to resolve "/.well-known/nodeinfo". Further information can be found in the documentation ↗
    

    Any idea? Thank you..

    • Xiao Guoan (Admin)
      5 months ago

      You don’t need to worry about this warning if you don’t use the social app in Nextcloud. This app is currently in alpha and not compatible with Nextcloud 23/24.

  • Great instructions, thank you very much for putting it together, I was able to install nextcloud without any issues. I do have some questions, when I go to overview, I do see the following warnings. I checked their documentation but is very vague. Can you please guide me on how to fix the following warnings?

    There are some warnings regarding your setup.
    Your web server is not properly set up to resolve "/.well-known/webfinger". Further information can be found in the documentation ↗.
    Your web server is not properly set up to resolve "/.well-known/nodeinfo". Further information can be found in the documentation ↗.
    
    You have not set or verified your email server configuration, yet. Please head over to the Basic settings in order to set them. Afterwards, use the "Send email" button below the form to verify your settings.
    
    Your installation has no default phone region set. This is required to validate phone numbers in the profile settings without a country code. To allow numbers without a country code, please add "default_phone_region" with the respective ISO 3166-1 code ↗ of the region to your config file.
    
    • Xiao Guoan (Admin)
      5 months ago

      1. You don’t need to worry about the webfinger and nodeinfo warning if you don’t use the social app in Nextcloud. This app is currently in alpha and not compatible with Nextcloud 23/24.

      2. To configure email server in Nextcloud, go to Settings -> Personal Info and set an email address for your account.

      nextcloud email address

      Then go to Settings -> Basic settings. You will find the email server settings. There are two send modes: sendmail and smtp. Choose the sendmail mode.

      nextcloud email server send mode sendmail

      Next, follow the tutorial linked below to set up SMTP relay on Ubuntu.

      Once the SMTP relay is configured, click the send email button in Nextcloud to test if email sending is working.

      3. To set a default phone region, edit your Nextcloud config.php file (/var/www/nextcloud/config/config.php), add a line in this file:

      default_phone_region' => 'US',

      nextcloud-default-phone-region />
      Save and close the file.

  • I see conflicting information on which database is faster, postgres or mysql. In your experience, is postres preferable?

    • Xiao Guoan (Admin)
      5 months ago

      From my experience, PostgreSQL is faster and has much smaller memory footprint.

      When my Nextcloud runs with MariaDB, it occasionally coughs out a 502 gateway timeout error and is slow to process when there are a large number of files. After switching to PostgreSQL, the problems are gone, without doing any performance tuning.

      Actually, some of the Nextcloud developers recommend PostgreSQL. Your mileage may vary depending on your server setup. You can always switch back to MySQL/MariaDB if there’s no performance gain.

  • I’m running into an error when trying to convert MariaDB to Postgresql.

    - oc_jobs
      0/73 [>---------------------------]   0% < 1 sec/< 1 sec
    In ExceptionConverter.php line 64:
                                                                                                                    
      An exception occurred while executing a query: SQLSTATE[42703]: Undefined column: 7 ERROR:  column "time_sen  
      sitive" of relation "oc_jobs" does not exist                                                                  
      LINE 1: ...erved_at", "execution_duration", "argument_hash", "time_sens...                                    
                                                                   ^                                                                                                                                            
    
    In Exception.php line 26:
                                                                                                                 
      SQLSTATE[42703]: Undefined column: 7 ERROR:  column "time_sensitive" of relation "oc_jobs" does not exist  
      LINE 1: ...erved_at", "execution_duration", "argument_hash", "time_sens...                                 
                                                                   ^                                             
    
    In Statement.php line 92:
                                                                                                                 
      SQLSTATE[42703]: Undefined column: 7 ERROR:  column "time_sensitive" of relation "oc_jobs" does not exist  
      LINE 1: ...erved_at", "execution_duration", "argument_hash", "time_sens...
    
    • Xiao Guoan (Admin)
      5 months ago

      Log into MySQL/MariaDB console:

      sudo mysql -u root

      Select the nextcloud database.

      use nextcloud;

      Describe the structure of the oc_jobs table.

      describe oc_jobs;

      Sample output:
      time_sensitive_oc_jobs
      If your oc_jobs table doesn’t have the time_sensitive column, it means your database is broken in the first place.

  • rastislav
    4 months ago

    hi. please i was successful till step.6 open nexctloud page to install nextcloud when i opened my page there is only nginx welcome page, not the nextcloud installation page. i did fresh install on last ubunutu 22 image without any pre-instllation .

    thanks
    bye
    rasto

    • Xiao Guoan (Admin)
      4 months ago

      Are you using an IP address to access the Nextcloud installation page? When you use an IP address, the default virtual host will be used.

      • rastislav
        4 months ago

        i am using domain pointing to my public IP address. so i tried to put in /etc/nginx/conf.d/nextcloud.conf domain name also ip address but result is same.. even when i tried /nextcloud/ – in this case it give me error page.. thank you very much for help

    • Xiao Guoan (Admin)
      4 months ago

      Remove the default virtual host.

      sudo rm /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default

      Then restart Nginx.

      sudo systemctl restart nginx
  • Keith Friend
    4 months ago

    Hi,
    I have been trying to get past a permission error on a SSD that I installed on a nuc i3 box as an external storage mount.
    I can’t set up this drive up during the wizard setup so I used the main drive and then tried to move the data directory as per your notes. I keep getting that .occdata is not present, which it is.
    Ubuntu installed my SSD as /media/keith/nc-data, I have given this drive www-data ownership.
    I have included the mount point in fstab with it’s UUID.
    not sure where else to look..
    Ubuntu 22.04.

  • Keith Friend
    4 months ago

    Hi,
    Solved this issue.. (at last).. my new data directory was “/media/keith/nc-data/cloud-data”, I had changed the ownership of nc-data to www-data as mentioned elsewhere.. but I had to ALSO change keith to www-data as well..
    Thanks for a great set of instructions..
    Some general comments;
    – Collarbora does not work on a Raspberry Pi ARM processor
    – Only office is not supported on Nexcloud 24.0 and above.

  • Ken Wright
    4 months ago

    Ni hao, Xiao!

    I’ve followed your directions and when I start the web-based install, I get a bunch of upgrades that need to be run, as well as some apps that get disabled. Then when I click Continue to Nextcloud I get a 504 Gateway Time-out. Nothing happens after this. Can you help?

    • Xiao Guoan (Admin)
      3 months ago

      Hi Ken,

      The 504 gateway time-out error is caused by the Nextcloud Office app. It seems not compatible with the latest Nextcloud version. Disable this app with the following command and the 504 error will go away.

      sudo -u www-data php8.1 /var/www/nextcloud/occ app:disable richdocuments

      If you can find the following line in the /var/log/nginx/nextcloud.access file, it means the Nextcloud Office doesn’t work.

      "GET /apps/richdocumentscode/proxy.php?req=/hosting/capabilities HTTP/1.1" 499 0 "-" "Nextcloud Server Crawler"
      
  • I am getting the following errors,

    Your web server is not properly set up to resolve “/.well-known/webfinger”. Further information can be found in the documentation ↗.
    Your web server is not properly set up to resolve “/.well-known/nodeinfo”. Further information can be found in the documentation ↗.
    Your web server is not properly set up to resolve “/.well-known/caldav”. Further information can be found in the documentation ↗.
    Your web server is not properly set up to resolve “/.well-known/carddav”. Further information can be found in the documentation ↗.

    How do I fix these? I know someone mentioned to ignore the 1st 2, but how do you fix it if I am using social app?

  • I’m having an issue with Collabora Online – Built-in CODE Server after following this guide. When enabled, nextcloud will show “Internal Server Error”. I have to use sudo -u www-data php -d memory_limit=512M ./occ app:remove richdocumentscode for nextcloud to work again. Any ideas what this could be?

  • Great tutorial, I managed to set it up on an old PI 2B (bullseye). it’s a bit slow but it’s working. Thanks

  • Hi
    Can php 8.1 run in paralel with 7.4? I have already 7.4 running on my VPS
    Thanks

  • Hello I installed Nextcloud following your excellent guide.

    My internal drive is too limited, I would like to extend it.

    What do you recommend me.

    Is it better to move the data base to my external USB drive or shoudl I try to extend it with the internal app extend storage from nc ?

    My feeling is, if the machine crash have the entire data base on the external drive should be better and more safe for recover the data right ?

    Should I format the drive in exFAT or ext4 before to move the data base following your guide ? ( I was thinking if my server crash I can just plug the drive on another device and be able to read the data, then it not lost).

    You said :

    In case you need to move the NextCloud data directory, there are 4 steps to accomplish this. First, you need to use the cp command to copy the data directory to the new directory. For example, the mount point of my external hard drive is /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731. I create the new data directory on the external hard drive.

    How do we use CP command ? ( I have interface user can i simply search the data directory and do copy paste ?).

    The mount point : /media/linuxbabe/b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731.
    This b43e4eea-9796-4ac6-9c48-2bcaa46353731 is the name of your drive ?

  • Encryption is broken due incompatibility between openssl v3.0.2 and nextcloud with Ubuntu 22.04, to fix this, the following needs to be done:
    credit to pako81 post here:
    https://github.com/owncloud/core/issues/40071

    edit the openssl in the [provider_sect] section as follows:

    sudo nano /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf

    =================================

    # List of providers to load
    [provider_sect]
    default = default_sect
    legacy = legacy_sect
    # The fips section name should match the section name inside the
    # included fipsmodule.cnf.
    # fips = fips_sect
    
    # If no providers are activated explicitly, the default one is activated implicitly.
    # See man 7 OSSL_PROVIDER-default for more details.
    #
    # If you add a section explicitly activating any other provider(s), you most
    # probably need to explicitly activate the default provider, otherwise it
    # becomes unavailable in openssl.  As a consequence applications depending on
    # OpenSSL may not work correctly which could lead to significant system
    # problems including inability to remotely access the system.
    [default_sect]
    activate = 1
    
    [legacy_sect]
    activate = 1
    

    =========================================
    restart the server and enable encryption.
    encryption will now work.
    thanks to Xiao for his excellent easy to following tutorials, I owe a great debt to most of my knowledge in Linux.
    Thank You

  • Hi, firstly, thank you for the great tutorial. Unlike others scattered around the net this one is easy to follow and, it works. My basic setup is working fine but I’ve run into an issue moving my data storage to a secondary hard drive. The secondary hard drive is mounted at /mnt/disk1. I’ve made the directory /mnt/disk1/nextcloud-data but when I run the following commands I get “No such file or directory” as seen below:

    [email protected]:/var/www$ sudo cp /var/www/nextcloud-data/* /mnt/disk1/nextcloud-data/ -R
    cp: cannot stat ‘/var/www/nextcloud-data/*’: No such file or directory
    [email protected]:/var/www$

    When I run the ls command as seen below it shows the nextcloud-data file as being there. Do you see anything that I am doing wrong?

    [email protected]:/var/www$ ls
    html nextcloud nextcloud-data

    I’ve checked and the new nextcloud-data file exists on my new drive.

    Thank you.

Leave a Comment

  • Comments with links are moderated by admin before published.
  • Your email address will not be published.
  • Use <pre> ... </pre> HTML tag to quote the output from your terminal/console.
  • Please use the community (https://community.linuxbabe.com) for questions unrelated to this article.
  • I don't have time to answer every question. Making a donation would incentivize me to spend more time answering questions.

The maximum upload file size: 2 MB. You can upload: image. Links to YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and other services inserted in the comment text will be automatically embedded. Drop file here