How to Quickly Set Up a Mail Server on Debian 10 Buster With Modoboa

Setting up a mail server on Linux from scratch is a pain in the neck. This tutorial is going to show you how to quickly set up your own email server on Debian 10 Buster with Modoboa, saving you lots of time and headaches. Modoboa is a free and open-source mail hosting and management platform designed to work with Postfix SMTP server and Dovecot IMAP/POP3 server.

Modoboa is written in Python, released under the terms of ISC license. At the time of writing, The latest version is v1.16.0, released on October 5, 2020. Main features of Modoboa are as follows:

  • Modoboa by default uses Nginx web server to serve the webmail client and web-based admin panel.
  • Compatible with Postfix and Dovecot.
  • Supports MySQL/MariaDB, and PostgreSQL database.
  • Easily create unlimited mailboxes and unlimited mail domains in a web-based admin panel.
  • Easily create email alias in the web-based admin panel.
  • The webmail client provides an easy-to-use message filter to help you organize messages to different folders.
  • It can help you protect your domain reputation by monitoring email blacklists and generating DMARC reports, so your emails have a better chance to land in the inbox instead of the spam folder.
  • Includes amavis frontend to block spam and detect viruses in email.
  • Calendar and address book.
  • Integration with Let’s Encrypt to get a valid SSL/TLS certificate.
  • A policy daemon for Postfix that allows you to define daily sending limits for domains and individual accounts.
  • Includes AutoMX to allow end-users to easily configure mail account in a desktop or mobile mail client.

Step 1: Choose the Right Hosting Provider and Buy a Domain Name

To set up a complete email server with Modoboa, you need a server with at least 2GB RAM, because after the installation, your server will use more than 1GB of RAM. This tutorial is done on a $8.99/month Hostwinds VPS (virtual private server). I recommend Hostwinds because it does not block port 25, so you can send unlimited emails (transactional email and newsletters) without spending money on SMTP relay. Hostwinds doesn’t have any SMTP limits. You can send a million emails per day.

Other VPS providers like DigitalOcean blocks port 25. DigitalOcean would not unblock port 25, so you will need to set up SMTP relay to bypass blocking, which can cost you additional money. If you use Vultr VPS, then port 25 is blocked by default. They can unblock it if you open a support ticket, but they may block it again at any time if they decide your email sending activity is not allowed. Vultr actually may re-block it if you use their servers to send newsletters.

Go to Hostwinds website to create an account. Choose the 2GB unmanaged Linux VPS plan.

hostwinds mail server

Once you created an account, Hostwinds will send you an email with the server SSH login details. To log into your server, you use an SSH client. If you are using Linux or MacOS on your computer, then simply open up a terminal window and run the following command to log into your server. Replace 12.34.56.78 with your server’s IP address.

ssh root@12.34.56.78

You will be asked to enter the password. If you are using Windows, please read the following article on how to use SSH client.

It is highly recommended that you follow the instructions below on a clean install of Debian 10 OS.

You also need a domain name. I registered my domain name from NameCheap because the price is low and they give whois privacy protection free for life.

Step 2: Creating MX Record and A Record in DNS

The MX record specifies which host or hosts handle emails for a particular domain name. For example, the host that handles emails for linuxbabe.com is mail.linuxbabe.com. If someone with a Gmail account sends an email to somebody@linuxbabe.com, then Gmail server will query the MX record of linuxbabe.com. When it finds out that mail.linuxbabe.com is responsible for accepting email, it then query the A record of mail.linuxbabe.com to get the IP address, thus the email can be delivered.

You can log in to your domain registrar’s website (such as NameCheap) to create DNS records.

In your DNS manager, create a MX record for your domain name. Enter @ in the Name field to represent the main domain name, then enter mail.your-domain.com in the Value field.

modoboa web interface

Note: The hostname for MX record can not be an alias to another name. Also, It’s highly recommended that you use hostnames, rather than bare IP addresses for MX record.

Your DNS manager may require you to enter a preference value (aka priority value). It can be any number between 0 and 65,356. A small number has higher priority than a big number. You can enter 0 for your email server, or accept the default value.

After creating MX record, you also need to create an A record for mail.your-domain.com , so that it can be resolved to an IP address. If your server uses IPv6 address, be sure to add AAAA record.

If you use Cloudflare DNS service, you should not enable the proxy (CDN) feature when creating A record for your mail server. Cloudflare does not support SMTP proxy. You won’t be able to receive emails if you enable the proxy feature.

Step 3: Set up Mail Server on Debian 10 Buster with Modoboa Installer

Log into your server via SSH, then run the following command to update existing software packages.

sudo apt update

sudo apt upgrade

You Debian 10 system might ship with Exim SMTP server. Since Modoboa will use Postfix SMTP server, we need to remove Exim.

sudo apt remove exim4 exim4-base exim4-daemon-light

Download Modoboa installer from Github.

sudo apt install git

git clone https://github.com/modoboa/modoboa-installer

Modoboa is written in Python. Run the following command to install the necessary Python software.

sudo apt-get install python3-virtualenv python3-pip

Then navigate to the modoboa-installer directory and create a configuration file. Replace example.com with your own domain name.

cd modoboa-installer

sudo ./run.py --stop-after-configfile-check example.com

modoboa-mail-server-debian-10-buster

Edit the configuration file installer.cfg with a command-line text editor like nano.

sudo nano installer.cfg

To obtain a valid TLS certificate from Let’s Encrypt for your mail server, in [certificate] section, change the value of type from self-signed to letsencrypt.

type = letsencrypt

And change the email address from admin@example.com to your real email address, which will be used for account recovery and important notifications. You will not be able to obtain and install Let’s Encrypt certificate if you use the default email address.

modoboa installer

By default, Modoboa installer will install PostgreSQL database server, as indicated by the following lines in the config file.

[database]
engine = postgres
host = 127.0.0.1
install = true

If you would like to use MariaDB database server, then change the engine from postgres to mysql. (Modoboa will install MariaDB instead of MySQL.)

modoboa mariadb database

To save the file in Nano text editor, press Ctrl+O, then press Enter to confirm. Press Ctrl+X to exit.

Next, you should use a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) as the hostname for your mail server, such as mail.example.com. Run the following command to set the hostname.

sudo hostnamectl set-hostname mail.example.com

Now we need to verify if the DNS records are propagated to the Internet. Depending on the domain registrar you use, your DNS record might be propagated instantly, or it might take up to 24 hours to propagate. You can go to https://dnsmap.io, enter your mail server’s hostname (mail.example.com) to check DNS propagation.

If your DNS record are propagated, run the following command to start the installation.

sudo ./run.py --interactive example.com

install-modoboa-debian-10-buster

The installation process can take a while. It took 10 minutes on my Hostwinds server. If you experience an error during the installation, you can use the --debug option to see more detailed output.

sudo ./run.py --interactive --debug example.com

After Modoboa finishes installation, you can log into the admin panel with username admin and password password. (If your browser can’t connect to the admin panel, it could be that Nginx is not running. Start it with sudo systemctl restart nginx.)

modoboa-mail-server-debian-10

Once you are logged in, you should go to Admin -> Settings -> Profile to change the password.

modoboa install

Step 4: Adding Mailboxes in Modoboa Admin Panel

Please note that the default admin account isn’t an email account. It can only be used to administer the mail server. To send emails, you need to add mailboxes with the admin account.

Go to Domains tab and click Add button to add a new domain.

modoboa review

Then enter your main domain name in the Name field. It is highly recommended that you enable DKIM signing, which can help with your domain reputation. In Key selector filed, you can enter a random word like modoboa. Choose 2048 for the key length.

adding domain name in modoboa

In the next screen, you can choose to create an admin account for this particular domain name. The SMTP protocol requires that a mail server should have a postmaster@example.com address.

modoboa postmaster account

Click the Submit button and your domain name will be added in Modoboa.

To add email addresses, go to Domains tab and click your domain name.

add mailboxes in modoboa

Then click mailboxes.

adding email addresses in modoboa

Click Add button and choose Account.

modoboa alias

Then choose Simple user as the role. Enter an email address in Username field and enter a password.

qucikly set up an email server modoboa

In the next screen, you can optionally create an alias for this email address.

create alias in modoboa

After clicking the submit button, the email address is created.

Step 5: Sending Test Emails

To login to the webmail, you need to log out the admin account first and then enter the user credentials.

modoboa login

Once you are logged into Modoboa webmail, you can send a test email from your private email server to your other email address and vice versa.

modoboa webmail

Inbound emails will be delayed for a few minutes because by default Modoboa enables greylisting, which tells other sending SMTP server to try again in a few minutes. This is useful to block spam. The following message in /var/log/mail.log indicates greylisting is enabled.

postfix/postscreen[20995]: NOQUEUE: reject: RCPT from [34.209.113.130]:36980: 450 4.3.2 Service currently unavailable;

However, greylisting can be rather annoying. You can disable it by editing the Postfix main configuration file.

sudo nano /etc/postfix/main.cf

Find the following lines at the end of the file and comment them out. (Add a # character at the beginning of each line.)

postscreen_pipelining_enable = yes
postscreen_pipelining_action = enforce

postscreen_non_smtp_command_enable = yes
postscreen_non_smtp_command_action = enforce

postscreen_bare_newline_enable = yes
postscreen_bare_newline_action = enforce

Save and close the file. Then restart Postfix for the changes to take effect.

sudo systemctl restart postfix

Now you should be able to receive emails without waiting several minutes.

Adding Swap Space

ClamAV is used to scan viruses in email messages. ClamAV can use a fair amount of RAM. If there’s not enough RAM on your server, ClamAV won’t work properly, which will prevent your mail server from sending emails. You can add a swap file to your server to increase the total RAM on your server. (Note that using swap space on the server will degrade server performance. If you want better performance, you should upgrade the physical RAM instead of using swap space.)

To add swap space on the server, first, use the fallocate command to create a file. For example, create a file named swapfile with 1G capacity in root file system:

sudo fallocate -l 1G /swapfile

Then make sure only root can read and write to it.

sudo chmod 600 /swapfile

Format it to swap:

sudo mkswap /swapfile

Output:

Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 1024 MiB (1073737728 bytes)
no label, UUID=0aab5886-4dfb-40d4-920d-fb1115c67433

Enable the swap file

sudo swapon /swapfile

To mount the swap space at system boot time, edit the /etc/fstab file.

sudo nano /etc/fstab

Add the following line at the bottom of this file.

/swapfile    swap    swap     defaults    0   0

Save and close the file. Then reload systemd.

sudo systemctl daemon-reload

Step 6: Checking If Port 25 (outbound) is blocked

Your ISP or hosting provider won’t block incoming connection to port 25 of your server, which means you can receive emails from other mail servers. However, many ISP/hosting providers block outgoing connection to port 25 of other mail servers, which means you can’t send emails.

If your email didn’t arrive at your other email address such as Gmail, then run the following command on your mail server to check if port 25 (outbound) is blocked.

telnet gmail-smtp-in.l.google.com 25

If it’s not blocked, you would see messages like below, which indicates a connection is successfully established. (Hint: Type in quit and press Enter to close the connection.)

Trying 74.125.68.26...
Connected to gmail-smtp-in.l.google.com.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 mx.google.com ESMTP y22si1641751pll.208 - gsmtp

If port 25 (outbound) is blocked, you would see something like:

Trying 2607:f8b0:400e:c06::1a...
Trying 74.125.195.27... telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection timed out

In this case, your Postfix can’t send emails to other SMTP servers. Ask your ISP/hosting provider to open it for you. If they refuse your request, you need to set up SMTP relay to bypass port 25 blocking.

Still Can’t Send Email?

If port 25 (outbound) is not blocked, but you still can’t send emails from your own mail server to your other email address like Gmail, then you should check the mail log (/var/log/mail.log).

sudo nano /var/log/mail.log

For example, some folks might see the following lines in the file.

host gmail-smtp-in.l.google.com[2404:6800:4003:c03::1b] said: 550-5.7.1 [2a0d:7c40:3000:b8b::2] Our system has detected that 550-5.7.1 this message does not meet IPv6 sending guidelines regarding PTR 550-5.7.1 records and authentication. Please review 550-5.7.1 https://support.google.com/mail/?p=IPv6AuthError for more information

This means your mail server is using IPv6 to send the email, but you didn’t set up IPv6 records. You should go to your DNS manager, set AAAA record for mail.your-domain.com, then you should set PTR record for your IPv6 address, which is discussed in step 8.

Step 7: Using Mail Clients on Your Computer or Mobile Device

Fire up your desktop email client such as Mozilla Thunderbird and add a mail account.

  • In the incoming server section, select IMAP protocol, enter mail.your-domain.com as the server name, choose port 143 and STARTTLS. Choose normal password as the authentication method.
  • In the outgoing section, select SMTP protocol, enter mail.your-domain.com as the server name, choose port 587 and STARTTLS. Choose normal password as the authentication method.

ubuntu postfix dovecot letsencrypt https

You can also use IMAP on port 993 with SSL/TLS encryption.

Step 8: Improving Your Email Server Reputation

To prevent your emails from being flagged as spam, you should set PTR, SPF, DKIM and DMARC records.

PTR record

A pointer record, or PTR record, maps an IP address to an FQDN (fully qualified domain name). It’s the counterpart to the A record and is used for reverse DNS lookup, which can help with blocking spammers. Many SMTP servers reject emails if no PTR record is found for the sending server.

To check the PTR record for an IP address, run this command:

dig -x IP-address +short

or

host IP-address

PTR record isn’t managed by your domain registrar. It’s managed by the organization that gives you an IP address. Because you get IP address from your hosting provider or ISP, not from your domain registrar, so you must set PTR record for your IP in the control panel of your hosting provider or ask your ISP. Its value should be your mail server’s hostname: mail.your-domain.com. If your server uses IPv6 address, be sure to add a PTR record for your IPv6 address as well.

To edit the reverse DNS record for your Hostwinds VPS, log into Hostwinds client area, select Domains -> Manage rDNS, Then you can edit the reverse DNS record for both IPv4 and IPv6 address.

mail server reverse DNS record

SPF Record

SPF (Sender Policy Framework) record specifies which hosts or IP address are allowed to send emails on behalf of a domain. You should allow only your own email server or your ISP’s server to send emails for your domain. In your DNS management interface, create a new TXT record like below.

modoboa spf record

Explanation:

  • TXT indicates this is a TXT record.
  • Enter @ in the name field to represent the main domain name.
  • v=spf1 indicates this is a SPF record and the version is SPF1.
  • mx means all hosts listed in the MX records are allowed to send emails for your domain and all other hosts are disallowed.
  • ~all indicates that emails from your domain should only come from hosts specified in the SPF record. Emails that are from other hosts will be flagged as forged.

To check if your SPF record is propagated to the public Internet, you can use the dig utility on your Linux machine like below:

dig your-domain.com txt

The txt option tells dig that we only want to query TXT records.

DKIM Record

DKIM (DomainKeys Identified Mail) uses a private key to digitally sign emails sent from your domain. Receiving SMTP servers verify the signature by using the public key, which is published in the DNS DKIM record.

When we were adding domain name in Moboboa admin panel earlier, we enabled DKIM signing, so the signing part is taken care of. The only thing left to do is creating DKIM record in DNS manager. First go to Modoboa admin panel as the admin user and select your domain name. In the DNS section, click Show key button.

modoboa dkim signing

The public key will be revealed. There are two formats. We only need the Bind/named format.

modoboa dkim public key

Go to your DNS manager, create a TXT record, enter modoboa._domainkey in the Name field. (Recall that we used modoboa as the selector when adding domain name in the admin panel.) Copy everything in the parentheses and paste into the value field. Delete all double quotes. Your DNS manager may require you to delete other invalid characters, such as carriage return.

modoboa dkim format

For those who are interested, Modoboa uses OpenDKIM to generate private key for your domainkey and verify signatures of inbound emails.

DMARC Record

DMARC stands for Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance. DMARC can help receiving email servers to identify legitimate emails and prevent your domain name from being used by email spoofing.

To create a DMARC record, go to your DNS manager and add a TXT record. In the name field, enter _dmarc. In the value field, enter the following:

v=DMARC1; p=none; pct=100; rua=mailto:dmarc-reports@your-domain.com

create dmarc record txt

The above DMARC record is a safe starting point. To see the full explanation of DMARC, please check the following article.

Step 9: Testing Email Score and Placement

After creating PTR, SPF, DKIM record, go to https://www.mail-tester.com. You will see a unique email address. Send an email from your domain to this address and then check your score. As you can see, I got a perfect score.

Testing-Email-Score-and-Placement

Mail-tester.com can only show you a sender score. There’s another service called GlockApps that allow you to check if your email is placed in the recipient’s inbox or spam folder, or rejected outright. It supports many popular email providers like Gmail, Outlook, Hotmail, YahooMail, iCloud mail, etc

glockapps-email-placement-testing

What if Your Emails Are Still Being Marked as Spam?

I have more tips for you in this article: How to stop your emails from being marked as spam. Although it requires some time and effort, your emails will eventually be placed in inbox after applying these tips.

What if Your Email is Rejected by Microsoft Mailbox?

Microsoft seems to be using an internal blacklist that blocks many legitimate IP addresses. If your emails are rejected by Outlook or Hotmail, you need to submit the sender information form. After that, your email will be accepted by Outlook/Hotmail.

Auto-Renew Let’s Encrypt TLS Certificate

Modoboa installed the latest version of Let’s Encrypt client (certbot) as /opt/certbot-auto. Let’s Encrypt TLS certificate is valid for 90 days. To automatically renew the certificate, edit root user’s crontab file.

sudo crontab -e

Add the following line at the end of this file.

@daily /opt/certbot-auto renew -q && systemctl reload nginx postfix dovecot

Save and close the file. This tells Cron to run the certbot renew command every day. If the certificate has 30 days left, certbot will renew it. It’s necessary to reload Nginx web server, Postfix SMTP server and Dovecot IMAP server so they can pick up the new certificate.

Enabling SMTPS Port 465

If you are going to use Microsoft Outlook client, then you need to enable SMTPS port 465 in Postfix SMTP server.

Troubleshooting

First, please use a VPS with at least 2GB RAM. Running Modoboa on a 1GB RAM VPS will cause the database, SpamAssassin, or ClamAV to be killed because of out-of-memory problem. If you really want to use a 1GB RAM VPS, you are going to lose incoming emails and have other undesirable outcomes.

If the Modoboa web interface isn’t accessible, like a 502 gateway error, you should check the Nginx logs in /var/log/nginx/ directory to find clues. You may also want to check the mail log /var/log/mail.log.

Check if the various services are running.

systemctl status postfix

systemctl status dovecot

systemctl status nginx

systemctl status mariadb

systemctl status clamav-daemon

systemctl status amavis

systemctl status uwsgi 

systemctl status supervisor

If you enabled the firewall, you should open the following ports in the firewall.

HTTP port:  80
HTTPS port: 443
SMTP port:  25
Submission port: 587 (and 465 if you are going to use Microsoft Outlook mail client)
IMAP port:  143 and 993

If you would like to use the UFW firewall, check my guide here: Getting started with UFW firewall on Debian and Ubuntu.

I found that the clamav-daemon service has a tendency to stop without clear reason even when there’s enough RAM. This will delay emails for 1 minute. We can configure it to automatically restart if it stops via the systemd service unit. Copy the original service unit file to the /etc/systemd/system/ directory.

sudo cp /lib/systemd/system/clamav-daemon.service /etc/systemd/system/clamav-daemon.service

Then edit the service unit file.

sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/clamav-daemon.service

Add the following two lines in the [service] section.

Restart=always
RestartSec=3

Like this:

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/clamd --foreground=true
# Reload the database
ExecReload=/bin/kill -USR2 $MAINPID
StandardOutput=syslog
Restart=always
RestartSec=3

Save and close the file. Then reload systemd and restart clamav-daemon.service.

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart clamav-daemon

(Optional) Set Up Autodiscover and AutoConfig to Automate Mail Client Configuration

Autodiscover and AutoConfig make it easy to configure a desktop or mobile mail client. The end user just need to enter a name, email address and password to set up his/her mail account, without having to enter the SMTP or IMAP server details. Autodiscover is supported by Microsoft Outlook mail client and AutoConfig is supported by Mozilla Thunderbird mail client.

Modoboa uses AutoMX to implement this feature on your mail server. All we need to do now is add CNAME records in DNS. In your DNS manager, create two CNAME records.

autoconfig.yourdomain.com       CNAME         mail.yourdomain.com
autodiscover.yourdomain.com     CNAME         mail.yourdomain.com

Go to the Domains tab in your Modoboa admin panel, if the autoconfig is in green, that means your CNAME records are correct. (Modoboa checks DNS records for your mail server every 30 minutes, so you might need to wait some time for autoconfig to turn green.)

modoboa automx

Once the CNAME records are propagated to Internet, you don’t have to enter the SMTP or IMAP server details when setting up mail account in Microsoft Outlook and Mozilla Thunderbird.

Host Multiple Domains in Modoboa

See the following article:

Wrapping Up

I hope this tutorial helped you set up a mail server on Debian 10 Buster with Modoboa. As always, if you found this post useful, then subscribe to our free newsletter to get more tips and tricks. Take care 🙂

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14 Responses to “How to Quickly Set Up a Mail Server on Debian 10 Buster With Modoboa

  • I mentioned this in the article, but I want to say it again: The best practice to run Modoboa is using a clean fresh OS.

    Generally speaking, if there’s a script that will install lots of software, it’s a good practice to install it on a clean freash OS. Otherwise, the install script might mess up the existing configurations of your software, making it unusable. Or maybe a component of the softwar stack needs to bind to a port, but it’s already been taken by an existing process on the server, resulting in installation failure.

    Unless you are very knowledgeable about every piece of software on the server and can spead lots of time debugging, it’s not recommended to install Modoboa on a server that has other applications running.

    I have seen many folks who didn’t follow this advice bork the applications on their servers.

  • Amavis and ClamAV use about 1.3GB RAM. If your server doesn’t have enough RAM, you might not be able to receive emails. If you don’t need AntiVirus on your mail server, you can disable Amavis and ClamAV. This will save you 1.3GB RAM.

    Edit Postfix master configuration file.

    sudo nano /etc/postfix/master.cf

    Find the following lines in this file and comment them out.

    -o smtpd_proxy_filter=inet:[127.0.0.1]:10024
    -o smtpd_proxy_options=speed_adjust
    
    -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING
    -o smtpd_proxy_filter=inet:[127.0.0.1]:10026
    

    Save and close the file. Then restart Postfix.

    sudo systemctl restart postfix

    Now you can stop Amavis and ClamAV.

    sudo systemctl stop amavis clamav-daemon

    And disable auto-start at boot time.

    sudo systemctl disable amavis clamav-daemon
  • Adnan Batara
    4 weeks ago

    Hello Xiao Guoan,

    Have you tried setting up Modoboa to use LDAP authentication instead of SQL database and RoundCube webmail interface?

    Look forward to hearing from you soon.

    Thanks and best regards.

  • Samuel BARRET
    2 days ago

    Hello,
    I think I’ve followed everything as it should be but I can’t send an email

    Nov 30 08:52:19 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[3381]: warning: connect to 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused
    Nov 30 08:52:19 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[3381]: warning: problem talking to server 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused
    Nov 30 08:52:20 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[3381]: warning: connect to 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused
    Nov 30 08:52:20 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[3381]: warning: problem talking to server 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused

    • Port 9999 is used by the Modoboa policy daemon. Edit the Modoboa settings file.

      sudo nano /srv/modoboa/instance/instance/settings.py

      Make sure you have modoboa.policyd in MODOBOA_APPS.

      MODOBOA_APPS = (
          'modoboa',
          'modoboa.core',
          'modoboa.lib',
          'modoboa.admin',
          'modoboa.transport',
          'modoboa.relaydomains',
          'modoboa.limits',
          'modoboa.parameters',
          'modoboa.dnstools',
         'modoboa.policyd',
          'modoboa.maillog',
          # Modoboa extensions here.
          'modoboa_amavis',
          'modoboa_pdfcredentials',
          'modoboa_postfix_autoreply',
          'modoboa_sievefilters',
          'modoboa_stats',
          'modoboa_webmail',
          'modoboa_contacts',
          'modoboa_radicale',
      
      )
      

      Save and close the file. Then restart supervisor.service for the changes to take effect.

      sudo systemctl restart supervisor.service

      To check if the policy daemon is running, use this command.

      sudo ss -lnpt | grep 9999

      If it’s running, you would see a line like

      LISTEN    0         100              127.0.0.1:9999             0.0.0.0:*        users:(("python",pid=9463,fd=8)) 

      If it’s not running, you can check the supervisor log.

      sudo journalctl -eu supervisor.service
      • Samuel BARRET
        2 days ago

        When I make this order nothing happens

        pre>sudo ss -lnpt | grep 9999

        My settings.py file is correct

        > modoboa.policyd in MODOBOA_APPS

    • Is there any error message in the log?

      sudo journalctl -eu supervisor.service
      • Samuel BARRET
        2 days ago

        I have reinstalled everything from 0 and now I have an error 502

        error log nginx

        *1 upstream prematurely closed connection while reading response header from upstream, client: my_public_ip, server: mail.mysite.fr, request: "GET /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1", upstream: "uwsgi://unix:/run/uwsgi/app/modoboa_instance/socket:", host: "mail.mysite.fr", referrer: "https://mail.mysite.fr"
    • How many RAM does you server have and is the uwsgi service running?

      sudo systemctl status uwsgi
      • Samuel BARRET
        1 day ago

        8GB ram,

        ● uwsgi.service - LSB: Start/stop uWSGI server instance(s)
           Loaded: loaded (/etc/init.d/uwsgi; generated)
           Active: active (running) since Tue 2020-12-01 09:30:25 CET; 5min ago
             Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8)
          Process: 502 ExecStart=/etc/init.d/uwsgi start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
            Tasks: 6 (limit: 4915)
           Memory: 95.4M
           CGroup: /system.slice/uwsgi.service
                   ├─ 737 /usr/bin/uwsgi --ini /usr/share/uwsgi/conf/default.ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/automx_instance.ini --daemonize /v
                   ├─ 864 /usr/bin/uwsgi --ini /usr/share/uwsgi/conf/default.ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/modoboa_instance.ini --daemonize /
                   ├─1052 /usr/bin/uwsgi --ini /usr/share/uwsgi/conf/default.ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/automx_instance.ini --daemonize /v
                   ├─1058 /usr/bin/uwsgi --ini /usr/share/uwsgi/conf/default.ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/automx_instance.ini --daemonize /v
                   ├─1734 /usr/bin/uwsgi --ini /usr/share/uwsgi/conf/default.ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/modoboa_instance.ini --daemonize /
                   └─1735 /usr/bin/uwsgi --ini /usr/share/uwsgi/conf/default.ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/modoboa_instance.ini --daemonize /
        
        Dec 01 09:30:24 montricoux systemd[1]: Starting LSB: Start/stop uWSGI server instance(s)...
        Dec 01 09:30:25 montricoux uwsgi[502]: Starting app server(s): uwsgi -> . . done.
        Dec 01 09:30:25 montricoux systemd[1]: Started LSB: Start/stop uWSGI server instance(s).
         ESCOC
        
        
        ago
        
        s=0/SUCCESS)
        
        
        
        .ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/automx_instance.ini --daemonize /var/log/uwsgi/app/automx_instance.log
        .ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/modoboa_instance.ini --daemonize /var/log/uwsgi/app/modoboa_instance.log
        .ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/automx_instance.ini --daemonize /var/log/uwsgi/app/automx_instance.log
        .ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/automx_instance.ini --daemonize /var/log/uwsgi/app/automx_instance.log
        .ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/modoboa_instance.ini --daemonize /var/log/uwsgi/app/modoboa_instance.log
        .ini --ini /etc/uwsgi/apps-enabled/modoboa_instance.ini --daemonize /var/log/uwsgi/app/modoboa_instance.log
        
        I server instance(s)...
         -> . . done.
         server instance(s).
    • mail.mysite.fr is redirected to https://www.ovh.co.uk/mail/. I would recommend using a different sub-domain for your mail server, like mx.mysite.fr. Create DNS A record for it and don’t redirect it to another domain.

      • Samuel BARRET
        1 day ago

        Everything is redirect green my domain I just didn’t put the domain in the comments

  • Samuel BARRET
    59 mins ago

    I managed to install it, but the emails don’t get sent.

    mail.log

     13:19:03 vmi483626 postfix/postscreen[2825]: CONNECT from [127.0.0.1]:58960 to [127.0.0.1]:25
    Dec  2 13:19:03 vmi483626 postfix/postscreen[2825]: WHITELISTED [127.0.0.1]:58960
    Dec  2 13:19:03 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: connect from localhost[127.0.0.1]
    Dec  2 13:19:03 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: warning: connect to 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused
    Dec  2 13:19:03 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: warning: problem talking to server 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused
    Dec  2 13:19:04 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: warning: connect to 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused
    Dec  2 13:19:04 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: warning: problem talking to server 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused
    Dec  2 13:19:04 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: NOQUEUE: reject: RCPT from localhost[127.0.0.1]: 451 4.3.5 : Recipient address rejected: Server configuration problem; from= to= proto=ESMTP helo=
    Dec  2 13:19:04 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] ehlo=1 mail=1 rcpt=0/1 rset=1 quit=1 commands=4/5
    Dec  2 13:19:06 vmi483626 postfix/postscreen[2825]: CONNECT from [127.0.0.1]:58982 to [127.0.0.1]:25
    Dec  2 13:19:06 vmi483626 postfix/postscreen[2825]: WHITELISTED [127.0.0.1]:58982
    Dec  2 13:19:06 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: connect from localhost[127.0.0.1]
    Dec  2 13:19:06 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: warning: connect to 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused
    Dec  2 13:19:06 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: warning: problem talking to server 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused
    Dec  2 13:19:07 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: warning: connect to 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused
    Dec  2 13:19:07 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: warning: problem talking to server 127.0.0.1:9999: Connection refused
    Dec  2 13:19:07 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: NOQUEUE: reject: RCPT from localhost[127.0.0.1]: 451 4.3.5 : Recipient address rejected: Server configuration problem; from= to= proto=ESMTP helo=
    Dec  2 13:19:07 vmi483626 postfix/smtpd[2827]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] ehlo=1 mail=1 rcpt=0/1 rset=1 quit=1 commands=4/5
    Dec  2 13:19:08 vmi483626 dovecot: imap-login: Login: user=, method=PLAIN, rip=127.0.0.1, lip=127.0.0.1, mpid=2918, secured, session=
    Dec  2 13:19:08 vmi483626 dovecot: imap-login: Login: user=, method=PLAIN, rip=127.0.0.1, lip=127.0.0.1, mpid=2957, secured, session=

    journalctl -eu supervisor.service

     Dec 02 13:20:11 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:11,359 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:12 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:12,363 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4299
    Dec 02 13:20:13 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:13,365 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:13 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:13,968 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:14 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:14,970 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4357
    Dec 02 13:20:15 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:15,973 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:16 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:16,860 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:17 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:17,863 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4409
    Dec 02 13:20:18 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:18,865 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:19 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:19,397 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:20 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:20,400 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4461
    Dec 02 13:20:21 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:21,401 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:22 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:22,025 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:23 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:23,029 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4507
    Dec 02 13:20:24 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:24,031 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:24 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:24,752 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:25 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:25,754 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4559
    Dec 02 13:20:26 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:26,756 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:27 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:27,494 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:28 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:28,498 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4611
    Dec 02 13:20:29 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:29,510 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:30 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:30,170 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:31 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:31,172 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4657
    Dec 02 13:20:32 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:32,174 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:32 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:32,648 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:33 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:33,651 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4709
    Dec 02 13:20:34 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:34,653 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:35 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:35,129 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:36 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:36,132 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4755
    Dec 02 13:20:37 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:37,134 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:37 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:37,893 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:38 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:38,895 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4809
    Dec 02 13:20:39 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:39,898 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:41 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:41,007 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:42 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:42,013 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4861
    Dec 02 13:20:43 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:43,015 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:43 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:43,829 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:44 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:44,831 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4921
    Dec 02 13:20:45 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:45,833 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:46 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:46,466 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:47 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:47,468 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 4977
    Dec 02 13:20:48 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:48,469 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:49 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:49,046 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:50 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:50,051 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 5023
    Dec 02 13:20:51 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:51,055 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:51 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:51,676 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:52 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:52,678 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 5075
    Dec 02 13:20:53 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:53,681 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:54 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:54,419 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:55 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:55,423 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 5121
    Dec 02 13:20:56 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:56,432 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:20:57 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:57,583 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:20:58 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:58,586 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 5173
    Dec 02 13:20:59 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:20:59,592 INFO success: policyd entered RUNNING state, process has stayed up for > than 1 seconds (startsecs)
    Dec 02 13:21:00 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:21:00,616 INFO exited: policyd (exit status 1; not expected)
    Dec 02 13:21:01 montricoux supervisord[516]: 2020-12-02 13:21:01,619 INFO spawned: 'policyd' with pid 5231

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