Hello and welcome. Arch Linux is one of my favourite Linux distros. It’s a rolling release which means there’s no new version to upgrade to. The installation process if kind of difficult for new Linux users. But once you successfully installed Arch Linux on your computer, it’s actually easy to use. In this tutorial, I’m going to simulate a UEFI boot in virtualbox and install Arch Linux in it.
Enable UEFI in Virtualbox
First, create a virtualbox machine using virtualbox. To enable UEFI, go to the settings window of your virtual machine. Select System on the left pane, then check Enable EFI and hit the OK button.
Install Arch Linux with UEFI hardware in Virtualbox
Add Arch Linux ISO image in the storage settings before starting virtual machine, or you will be dropped into UEFI shell.
Now start your virtual machine from Arch Linux ISO image. Choose the first option so we can install Arch Linux in UEFI mode.
You will be automatically logged in as the root user.
Check if you can access Internet in this virtual machine.
ping -c6 www.linuxbabe.com
If you install Arch Linux on a real hardware, you can use this command to connect to Wi-Fi networks.
Set US keyboard as the keyboard layout:
Now let’s configure the partition. I’m using only one virtual hard drive, so the name of virtual hard drive is /dev/sda. Since we install Arch Linux on UEFI hardware, it’s better to partition the disk in GPT and also an EFI system partition is required.
Make a GPT style disk with parted partition editor.
parted /dev/sda mklabel gpt
You can confirm it’s a GPT disk using this command:
parted /dev/sda -l
Let parted use /dev/sda.
Then make a EFI system partition with 512MB space. Partition type is set to primary.
mkpart primary fat32 2048s 1050624s
Be aware that my virtual hard disk’s sector size is 512B both logically and physically. You may need to adjust the above command.
Check EFI system partition.
unit MiB print
To make it a EFI system partition, we need to set boot flag on this partition.
set 1 boot on
Now make a root partition.
mkpart primary ext4 1050625s 100%
100% means to use all of the available hardware space because I’m not making a swap partition. Now, exit out of parted partition editor.
Format /dev/sda1 as fat16 partition and /dev/sda2 as ext4 partition
mkfs -t fat /dev/sda1 mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sda2
Mount the root partition under /mnt.
mount /dev/sda2 /mnt
Make a boot directory on /dev/sda2 partition.
Mount /dev/sda1 under /mnt/boot/
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot/
Select a mirror that is close to your location.
To set your preferred mirror, copy that mirror address to the top of the mirror list. I live in China so I selected a mirror in China as my preferred mirrot.
Save and close this file. Now install Arch Linux base system.
pacstrap -i /mnt base
Next, generate a
genfstab -U -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
Find locales that you need and uncomment them. For example, I uncommmented en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 and zh_CN.UTF-8 UTF-8. Save the file.
/etc/locale.conf file and make en_US.UTF-8 as the default locale.
echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
Set your time zone. I set Shanghai as my time zone.
ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai /etc/localtime
Enable eth0 network interface.
systemctl enable [email protected]
pacman -S wireless_tools wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond dialog
To connect to wireless networks, use this command:
Enable wireless network interface.
systemctl enable net-auto-wireless.service
Install network manager and related tools.
pacman -S networkmanager networkmanager-vpnc network-manager-applet networkmanager-pptp networkmanager-openconnect
Enable network manager.
systemctl enable NetworkManager
Configure pacman package manager.
repositories section, [core], [extra], [community] repository is enabled by default. If your Arch Linux is 64 bit and you want to be able to install and run 32 bit software, you must enable [multilib] repository. To enable [multilib] repository, copy and paste the following two lines at the end of this file.
[multilib] Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
Save and close this file. Now update repositories.
Set a password for the root user.
Create a standard user account. Replace <username> with your preferred username.
useradd -m -g users -G wheel,storage,power -s /bin/bash <username>
Set a password for this user.
Install sudo utility
pacman -S sudo
Allow member of wheel group to use sudo.
Find this line.
# %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL
Remove the # sign and save this file.
Install grub and efi boot manager
pacman -S grub efibootmgr
Install Grub boot loader to /dev/sda.
grub-install /dev/sda --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot
Generate Grub configuration file.
grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
Exit out of chroot environment.
Reboot virtual machine. You will be greeted by Grub2 boot menu.
Login with the standard user. To change hostname:
sudo hostnamectl set-hostname <your-hostname>
sudo pacman -S alsa-utils
Start alsamixer sound configuration tool.
MM stands for mute. Press M key to unmute and use up and down arrow key to adjust sound volume. You must unmute Master and PCM.
Press ESC to exit out of sound configuration. Now enter this command to test sound.
If you hear something, that means the sound system is working. Press Ctrl+C to stop sound test.
Install X window system.
sudo pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-server-utils
Install mesa to enable 3D support.
sudo pacman -S mesa
Check what graphics card your system has.
lspci -k | grep -A 2 -i "VGA"
If you have an integrated Intel graphics card, install intel open source graphics card driver.
sudo pacman -S xf86-video-intel
If you have Nvidia graphics card, install Nvidia closed-source graphics driver.
sudo pacman -S nvidia lib32-nvidia-utils
For ATI card:
sudo pacman -S xf86-video-ati
The vesa display driver works with most video cards.
sudo pacman -S xf86-video-vesa
I’m using the Virtualbox graphics adapter and I have to install this package.
sudo pacman -S virtualbox-guest-utils
Notebook users can install trackpad driver.
sudo pacman -S xf86-input-synaptic
Install xorg test widget.
sudo pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm
Use this command to test xorg.
If you can see the following 3 programs running, that means X.org is working.
sudo pacman -S ttf-dejavu ttf-ubuntu-font-family
Install xfce4 desktop environment
sudo pacman -S xfce4 xfce4-goodies gamin firefox
Before we start our xfce4 desktop encironment we need to copy xinitrc file to our home directory an edit it.
cp /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc ~/.xinitrc nano ~/.xinitrc
Comment out the last 5 lines and add this line at the end of this file.
Save and close the file. Now start X window system.
You should be able to enter into XFCE4 desktop.
Install Slim Login Manager
Instead of typing startx command every time, we can install a login manager such as Slim to enable us to automatically boot into graphical user interface. To install Slim login manager, execute this command:
sudo pacman -S slim slim-themes
Then enable Slim to auto-start when computer is power on.
sudo systemctl enable slim.service
/etc/slim.conf to select a theme for our login manager.
sudo nano /etc/slim.conf
Find this line:
change it to this:
Save and close the file. Reboot your Arch Linux computer, you will be greeted by the Slim login manager.
Enable NTP time synchronization.
timedatectl set-ntp true
Some common packages that you may like after you install Arch Linux:
sudo pacman -S flashplugin vlc terminator htop parted gparted transmission-cli transmission-gtk wine wine-mono wine_gecko winetricks banshee
Drop into the EFI Shell
If your Arch Linux machine drop into an EFI shell, First enter the following command to add the Grub boot loader.
bcfg boot add 1 fs0:/EFI/arch/grubx64.efi "Manually Added"
Continue in the next screen and you will see the Grub boot menu.
To prevent dropping into EFI shell in the future, once you boot into Arch Linux, run the following command to make Arch Linux Grub as the default boot loader.
sudo mkdir /boot/EFI/BOOT sudo cp /boot/EFI/arch/grubx64.efi /boot/EFI/BOOT/BOOTX86.EFI
So that EFI can find the default boot loader.
You can also create a
startup.nsh script on the root of EFI system partition.
sudo nano /boot/startup.nsh
And put the following text into the shell script.
bcfg boot add 1 fs0:/EFI/arch/grubx64.efi "Manually Added" exit
So even if you drop into the EFI shell, you don’t need to manually execute these two command.
It’s not easy for Linux beginners to install Arch Linux, but once you practice a little and make some notes, you will find it’s actually fun.