How to Set Up OpenStreetMap Tile Server on Ubuntu 20.04

OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a user-contributed, freely-editable world map. You can think of it as an open-source and self-hosted alternative to Google Maps. This tutorial will show you how to build your own OpenStreetMap tile server on Ubuntu 20.04 so you don’t have to use a proprietary map service.

OpenStreetMap Features

  • OpenStreetMap data covers the whole world, making it easy to support users in any country or every country.
  • OpenStreetMap is updated every minute of every hour of every day, and these updates are available to you in real-time.
  • OpenStreetMap data is free and open – there is no subscription fee and no page-view fee.
  • OpenStreetMap data is rich and detailed, containing huge amounts of data that is relevant to people on the ground – the people who collected it.

Prerequisites/Hardware Requirements

The required RAM and disk space depend on which country’s map you are going to use. For example,

  • The UK map requires at least 12G RAM and 100GB disk space.
  • The whole planet map requires at least 32G RAM and 1TB SSD (Solid State Drive). It’s not viable to use a spinning hard disk for the whole planet map.

You will need more disk space if you are going to pre-render tiles to speed up map loading in the web browser, which is highly recommended. Check this tile disk usage page to see how much disk space are required for pre-rendering tiles. For example, if you are going to pre-render tiles from zoom level 0 to zoom level 15 for the planet map, an extra 460 GB disk space is required.

Another thing to note is that importing large map data, like the whole planet, to PostgreSQL database takes a long time. Consider adding more RAM and especially using SSD instead of spinning hard disk to speed up the import process.

If you are going to host the entire world map, I recommend you buy the extra-large VPS from Contabo, which boasts

  • A 10 core CPU
  • 60 GB RAM
  • 1.6 TB Intel Optane SSD

It costs just 26.99 €/month.

Step 1: Upgrade Software

It’s always a good practice to update server software before doing any major work on your server. Log into your server via SSH and run the following command.

sudo apt update; sudo apt upgrade

Step 2: Install PostgreSQL Database Server and the PostGIS Extension

We will use PostgreSQL to store map data. PostGIS is a geospatial extension to PostgreSQL. Run the following commands to install them.

sudo apt install postgresql postgresql-contrib postgis postgresql-12-postgis-3

PostgreSQL database server will automatically start and listens on 127.0.0.1:5432. The postgres user will be created on the OS during the installation process. It’s the super user for PostgreSQL database server. By default, this user has no password and there’s no need to set one because you can use sudo to switch to the postgres user and log into PostgreSQL server.

sudo -u postgres -i

Now you can create a PostgreSQL database user osm.

createuser osm

Then create a database named gis and at the same time make osm as the owner of the database. -E UTF8 specifies the character encoding scheme to be used in the database is UTF8.

createdb -E UTF8 -O osm gis

Next, create the postgis and hstore extension for the gis database.

psql -c "CREATE EXTENSION postgis;" -d gis

psql -c "CREATE EXTENSION hstore;" -d gis

Set osm as the table owner.

psql -c "ALTER TABLE spatial_ref_sys OWNER TO osm;" -d gis

Exit from the postgres user.

exit

Create osm user on your operating system so the tile server can run as osm user. The following command will create a system user without password.

sudo adduser --system osm

Step 3: Download Map Stylesheet and Map Data

Change to osm’s home directory.

cd /home/osm/

Download the latest CartoCSS map stylesheets to the osm user’s home directory with git.

sudo apt install git

git clone https://github.com/gravitystorm/openstreetmap-carto.git

If you see “permission denied” error while running the above command, then you can grant permissions with the following command. Replace username with your real username.

sudo apt install acl
sudo setfacl -R -m u:username:rwx /home/osm/

Next, run the following command to download the map data of the whole planet (50G) in PBF (ProtoBufBinary) format.

wget -c http://planet.openstreetmap.org/pbf/planet-latest.osm.pbf

Note that download speeds for openstreetmap.org are currently restricted to 2048 KB/s. You can download the plant map from another mirror, like

wget -c https://download.bbbike.org/osm/planet/planet-latest.osm.pbf

If you want a map of individual country/state/province/city, go to http://download.geofabrik.de. Also, BBBike.org provides extracts of more than 200 cities and regions worldwide in different formats. For example, download the map data of Great Britain (1.1G) with the following command.

wget -c http://download.geofabrik.de/europe/great-britain-latest.osm.pbf

Step 4: Optimize PostgreSQL Server Performance

The import process can take some time. To speed up this process, we can tune some PostgreSQL server settings to improve performance. Edit PostgreSQL main configuration file.

sudo nano /etc/postgresql/12/main/postgresql.conf

First, we should change the value of shared_buffer. The default setting is:

shared_buffers = 128MB

This is too small. The rule of thumb is to set it to 25% of your total RAM (excluding swap space). For example, my VPS has 60G RAM, so I set it to:

shared_buffers = 15GB

Find the following line.

#work_mem = 4MB
#maintenance_work_mem = 64MB

Again, the value is too small. I use the following settings.

work_mem = 1GB
maintenance_work_mem = 8GB

Then find the following line.

#effective_cache_size = 4GB

If you have lots of RAM like I do, you can set a higher value for the effective_cache_size like 20G.

effective_cache_size = 20GB

Save and close the file. Restart PostgreSQL for the changes to take effect.

sudo systemctl restart postgresql

By default, PostgreSQL would try to use huge pages in RAM. However, Linux by default does not allocate huge pages. Check the process ID of PostgreSQL.

sudo head -1 /var/lib/postgresql/12/main/postmaster.pid

Sample output:

7031

Then check the VmPeak value of this process ID.

grep ^VmPeak /proc/7031/status

Sample output:

VmPeak: 16282784 kB

This is the peak memory size that will be used by PostgreSQL. Now check the size of huge page in Linux.

cat /proc/meminfo | grep -i huge

Sample output:

AnonHugePages:         0 kB
ShmemHugePages:        0 kB
HugePages_Total:       0
HugePages_Free:        0
HugePages_Rsvd:        0
HugePages_Surp:        0
Hugepagesize:       2048 kB

We can calculate how many huge pages we need. Divide the VmPeak value by the size of huge page: 16282784 kB / 2048 kB = 7950. Edit /etc/sysctl.conf file.

sudo nano /etc/sysctl.conf

Add the following line to allocate 7950 huge pages.

vm.nr_hugepages = 7950

Save and close the file. Then apply the changes.

sudo sysctl -p

If you check the meminfo again,

cat /proc/meminfo | grep -i huge

We can see there are 7950 huge pages available.

AnonHugePages:         0 kB
ShmemHugePages:        0 kB
HugePages_Total:    7950
HugePages_Free:     7950
HugePages_Rsvd:        0
HugePages_Surp:        0
Hugepagesize:       2048 kB

Restart PostgreSQL to use huge pages.

sudo systemctl restart postgresql

Use Screen on Remote Servers

Since the import process can take a long time and your computer might be disconnected from Internet, it’s recommended to use the screen utility to keep your session alive. Install screen on the Ubuntu 20.04 server:

sudo apt install screen

Then start screen:

screen

Upon first launch, you will see an introduction text, simply press Enter to end. Then you will be able to run commands as usual.

Step 5: Import the Map Data to PostgreSQL

To import map data, we need to install osm2pgsql which converts OpenStreetMap data to postGIS-enabled PostgreSQL databases.

sudo apt install osm2pgsql

Grant permissions to the postgres user.

sudo setfacl -R -m u:postgres:rwx /home/osm/

Switch to the postgres user.

sudo -u postgres -i

Run the following command to load map stylesheet and map data into the gis database. Replace great-britain-latest.osm.pbf with your own map data file.

osm2pgsql --slim -d gis --hstore --multi-geometry --number-processes 10 --tag-transform-script /home/osm/openstreetmap-carto/openstreetmap-carto.lua --style /home/osm/openstreetmap-carto/openstreetmap-carto.style -C 32000 /home/osm/great-britain-latest.osm.pbf

where

  • --slim: run in slim mode rather than normal mode. This option is needed if you want to update the map data using OSM change files (OSC) in the future.
  • -d gis: select database.
  • --hstore: add tags without column to an additional hstore (key/value) column to PostgreSQL tables
  • --multi-geometry: generate multi-geometry features in postgresql tables.
  • --style: specify the location of style file
  • --number-processes: number of CPU cores on your server. I have 10.
  • -C flag specifies the cache size in MegaBytes. It should be around 70% of the free RAM on your machine. Bigger cache size results in faster import speed. For example, my server has 60GB free RAM, so I can specify -C 32000. Be aware that PostgreSQL will need RAM for shared_buffers. Use this formula to calculate how big the cache size should be: (Total RAM - PostgreSQL shared_buffers) * 70%
  • Finally, you need to specify the location of map data file.

Command Output:

openstreetmap-osm2pgsql-import-map-data

If you are going to import the full planet map data, then use the --drop option and the --flat-nodes option to increase the import speed. Note that the --flat-nodes option isn’t suitable for small maps.

osm2pgsql --slim -d gis --drop --flat-nodes /home/osm/nodes.cache --hstore --multi-geometry --number-processes 10 --tag-transform-script /home/osm/openstreetmap-carto/openstreetmap-carto.lua --style /home/osm/openstreetmap-carto/openstreetmap-carto.style -C 32000 /home/osm/planet-latest.osm.pbf

RAM usage will gradually increase during the importing process.

Now you probably don’t need to do other things on your server. Since you are using Screen, you can press Ctrl+A, release those keys, and then press D key to detach from the current Screen session. You will see a message like below.

[detached from 32113.pts-1.focal]

This tells me that the previous Screen session ID is 32113. You can log out from the SSH session and even shut down your computer. Don’t worry, the OSM import process is still running. When you need to come back and check the import progress, SSH into your server and run the following command to get the previous Screen Session ID.

screen -ls

Sample output:

There is a screen on:
	32113.pts-1.focal	(05/19/2020 03:45:29 PM)	(Detached)
1 Socket in /run/screen/S-linuxbabe.

Then you can re-attach to the previous Screen session.

screen -r 32113

And you will be able to continue your work. Once the import is complete, grant all privileges of the gis database to the osm user.

psql -c "GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA public TO osm;" -d gis

Exit from the postgres user.

exit

Importing the planet map on my Contabo extra-large VPS took about 46 hours.

openstreetmap osm2pgsql planet map import time

Note: If the osm2pgsql import isn’t finished yet, please don’t continue with step 6.

Step 6: Install mod_tile and Renderd

mod_tile is an Apache module that is required to serve tiles and renderd is the rendering daemon for rendering OpenStreetMap tiles. The default Ubuntu repository does not include mod_tile and renderd, but we can install them from the OSM PPA.

sudo apt install software-properties-common

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:osmadmins/ppa

sudo apt install libapache2-mod-tile renderd

During the installation, it will install Apache web server and ask if you want to enable mod_tile in the Apache config. Select Yes and press Enter. This will create an Apache config file for mod_tile (/etc/apache2/sites-available/tileserver_site.conf).

apache mod_tile

The render daemon will automatically start, as can be seen with:

systemctl status renderd

Step 7: Generate Mapnik Stylesheet

Install the required packages.

sudo apt install curl unzip gdal-bin mapnik-utils libmapnik-dev python3-pip

We also need to install nodejs and npm from the upstream repository with the following commands.

curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_12.x | sudo -E bash -
sudo apt-get install -y nodejs

Then install the carto package with npm.

sudo npm install -g carto

Install the psycopg2 Python module.

sudo -H pip3 install psycopg2

Switch to the postgres user.

sudo -u postgres -i

Cd into the carto style directory.

cd /home/osm/openstreetmap-carto/

Get shapefiles.

scripts/get-external-data.py

If you encounter the following error message while running the above command, then you have DNS issues. Simply wait for several minutes and run the Python script again.

Failed to establish a new connection: [Errno -3] Temporary failure in name resolution

Now build the Mapnik XML stylesheet with the carto map stylesheet compiler.

carto project.mml > style.xml

Grant all privileges of the gis database to the osm user.

psql -c "GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA public TO osm;" -d gis

Exit from the postgres user.

exit

Step 8: Install Fonts

You need to install the ttf-dejavu package.

sudo apt install ttf-dejavu

To display non-Latin characters, install the following packages.

sudo apt install fonts-noto-cjk fonts-noto-cjk-extra fonts-noto-hinted fonts-noto-unhinted ttf-unifont

Step 9: Configure renderd

Edit renderd config file.

sudo nano /etc/renderd.conf

In the [renderd] section, change the number of threads according to the number of CPU cores on your server.

num_threads=10

In the [default] section, change the value of XML and HOST to the following. Note that lines beginning with semicolons (;) are comments.

XML=/home/osm/openstreetmap-carto/style.xml
HOST=tile.your-domain.com

In [mapnik] section, change the value of plugins_dir to the following.

plugins_dir=/usr/lib/mapnik/3.0/input/

You can print the default input plugins directory with the following command.

mapnik-config --input-plugins

If you want to display non-Latin characters, it’s better to change the font settings to the following.

font_dir=/usr/share/fonts/truetype
font_dir_recurse=true

Save and close the file. Then edit the init script file

sudo nano /etc/init.d/renderd

Find the following line.

RUNASUSER=www-data

Change the user to osm. This is needed to load map data from PostgreSQL database.

RUNASUSER=osm

Save the file. Set osm as the owner of /var/lib/mod_tile/ directory, which will hold the rendered tile files.

sudo chown osm /var/lib/mod_tile/ -R

Then restart renderd service.

sudo systemctl daemon-reload

sudo systemctl restart renderd

You need to check the log of renderd.

sudo journalctl -eu renderd

Make sure renderd does not produce any error in the log after the restart, or the map won’t be displayed.

Step 10: Configure Apache

Edit the OSM virtual host file.

sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/tileserver_site.conf

Change the ServerName to your own domain name like tile.your-domain.com. You also need to create DNS A record for this sub-domain.

ServerName tile.your-domain.com

Save and close the file. Restart Apache.

sudo systemctl restart apache2

Then in your web browser address bar, type

tile.your-domain.com/osm/0/0/0.png

You should see the tile of the world map. Congrats! You just successfully built your own OSM tile server.

osm-tile-for-world-map

If you have enabled the UFW firewall, be sure to open port 80 and 443 with the following command.

sudo ufw allow 80,443/tcp

If you see the 404 not found error, simply wait a few minutes, refresh the page in your browser and it should be able to load the tile of world map.

Step 11: Display Your Tiled Web Map

Tiled web map is also known as slippy map in OpenStreetMap terminology. There are two free and open-source JavaScript map libraries you can use for your tile server: OpenLayer and Leaflet. The advantage of Leaflet is that it is simple to use and your map will be mobile-friendly.

OpenLayer

To display your slippy map with OpenLayer, download JavaScript and CSS from openlayer.org and extract it to the webroot folder.

cd /var/www/

sudo wget https://github.com/openlayers/openlayers/releases/download/v5.3.0/v5.3.0.zip

sudo unzip v5.3.0.zip

Next, create the index.html file.

sudo nano /var/www/index.html

Paste the following HTML code in the file. Replace red-colored text and adjust the longitude, latitude and zoom level according to your needs.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>Accessible Map</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="http://tile.your-domain.com/v5.3.0/css/ol.css" type="text/css">
<script src="http://tile.your-domain.com/v5.3.0/build/ol.js"></script>
<style>
  a.skiplink {
    position: absolute;
    clip: rect(1px, 1px, 1px, 1px);
    padding: 0;
    border: 0;
    height: 1px;
    width: 1px;
    overflow: hidden;
  }
  a.skiplink:focus {
    clip: auto;
    height: auto;
    width: auto;
    background-color: #fff;
    padding: 0.3em;
  }
  #map:focus {
    outline: #4A74A8 solid 0.15em;
  }
</style>
</head>
<body>
  <a class="skiplink" href="#map">Go to map</a>
  <div id="map" class="map" tabindex="0"></div>
  <button id="zoom-out">Zoom out</button>
  <button id="zoom-in">Zoom in</button>
  <script>
    var map = new ol.Map({
      layers: [
        new ol.layer.Tile({
          source: new ol.source.OSM({
             url: 'http://tile.your-domain.com/osm/{z}/{x}/{y}.png'
          })
       })
     ],
     target: 'map',
     controls: ol.control.defaults({
        attributionOptions: /** @type {olx.control.AttributionOptions} */ ({
          collapsible: false
        })
     }),
    view: new ol.View({
       center: [244780.24508882355, 7386452.183179816],
       zoom:5
    })
 });

  document.getElementById('zoom-out').onclick = function() {
    var view = map.getView();
    var zoom = view.getZoom();
    view.setZoom(zoom - 1);
  };

  document.getElementById('zoom-in').onclick = function() {
     var view = map.getView();
     var zoom = view.getZoom();
     view.setZoom(zoom + 1);
  };
</script>
</body>
</html>

Save and close the file. Now you can view your slippy map by typing your sub-domain in the browser address bar.

tile.your-domain.com

or

tile.your-domain.com/index.html

Leaflet

To display your slippy map with Leftlet, download JavaScript and CSS from leftletjs.com and extract it to the webroot folder.

cd /var/www/

sudo wget http://cdn.leafletjs.com/leaflet/v1.6.0/leaflet.zip

sudo unzip leaflet.zip

Next, create the index.html file.

sudo nano /var/www/index.html

Paste the following HTML code in the file. Replace red-colored text and adjust the longitude, latitude and zoom level according to your needs.

<html>
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>My first osm</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="leaflet.css"/>
<script type="text/javascript" src="leaflet.js"></script>
<style>
   #map{width:100%;height:100%}
</style>
</head>

<body>
  <div id="map"></div>
  <script>
    var map = L.map('map').setView([53.555,9.899],5);
    L.tileLayer('http://tile.your-domain.com/osm/{z}/{x}/{y}.png',{maxZoom:18}).addTo(map);
</script>
</body>
</html>

Save and close the file. Now you can view your slippy map by typing your server IP address in browser.

tile.your-domain.com

or

tile.your-domain.com/index.html

openstreetmap tile server setup

Step 12: Pre-render Tiles

Rendering tiles on-the-fly will increase the map loading time in web browser. To pre-render tiles instead of rendering on the fly, use the following render_list command. Use -z and -Z flag specify the zoom level and replace the number of threads according to the number of CPU cores on your server. Render_list renders a list of map tiles by sending requests to the rendering daemon. Pre-rendered tiles will be cached in /var/lib/mod_tile directory.

render_list -m default -a -z 0 -Z 19 --num-threads=10

If later you updated the map data, you can pre-render all tiles again by using the --force option.

render_list -m default -a -z 0 -Z 19 --num-threads=10 --force

To render map tiles in the background, add the & symbol at the end.

render_list -m default -a -z 0 -Z 19 --num-threads=10 &

Now you can close the terminal window. To check the rendering progress, open another SSH session, and run the following command.

sudo journalctl -eu renderd

The above command will show the latest log of the renderd service. The following lines show that my OSM server is now rendering map tiles at zoom level 12.

 renderd[20838]: DEBUG: START TILE default 12 1008-1015 4056-4063, new metatile
 renderd[20838]: Rendering projected coordinates 12 1008 4056 -> -10175297.205328|-19724422.274944 -10097025.688364|-19646150.757980 to a 8 x 8 tile
 renderd[20838]: DEBUG: DONE TILE default 12 1008-1015 3984-3991 in 0.799 seconds
 renderd[20838]: DEBUG: Sending render cmd(3 default 12/1008/3984) with protocol version 2 to fd 18
 renderd[20838]: DEBUG: Got incoming request with protocol version 2
 renderd[20838]: DEBUG: Got command RenderBulk fd(18) xml(default), z(12), x(1008), y(4064), mime(image/png), options()
 renderd[20838]: DEBUG: START TILE default 12 1008-1015 4064-4071, new metatile
 renderd[20838]: Rendering projected coordinates 12 1008 4064 -> -10175297.205328|-19802693.791908 -10097025.688364|-19724422.274944 to a 8 x 8 tile

Step 13: Enable HTTPS

To encrypt HTTP traffic, we can obtain and install a free TLS certificate from Let’s Encrypt. First, install the Let’s Encrypt client (certbot) on Ubuntu 20.04.

sudo apt install certbot

Since we are using Apache web server, we also need to install the Apache plugin.

sudo apt install python3-certbot-apache

Then run the following command to obtain and install TLS certificate.

sudo certbot --apache --agree-tos --redirect --hsts --staple-ocsp --must-staple --email [email protected] -d tile.your-domain.com

Once the certificate is installed, refresh the web page and you will see a lock in the address bar.

sm-tile-server-ubuntu-20.04-install

If you see a yellow triangle in Firefox address bar, that means the tile URLs are still using HTTP. You need to edit the index.html file and replace all HTTP protocol with HTTPS with the following command.

sudo sed -i 's/http/https/g' /var/www/index.html

Step 14: Enable HTTP2

To further improve map loading performance, you can enable HTTP2 protocol. First, you need to enable the HTTP2 module.

sudo a2enmod http2

Then open the SSL virtual host file.

sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/tileserver_site-le-ssl.conf

Put the following directive after the opening <VirtualHost *:443> tag.

Protocols h2 http/1.1

Save and close the file. Then restart Apache for the changes to take effect.

sudo systemctl restart apache2

Restrict Access to Your OSM Tile Server with HTTP Referrer Header

By default, anyone can use OpenLayer or Leaflet to create a slippy map with the URL of your tile server. To restrict access to your tile server, edit the Apache virtual host file.

sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/tileserver_site-le-ssl.conf

Add the following lines in the <VirtualHost> tags.

    <Location /osm>
        SetEnvIf Referer example\.com trusted_referer
        Order deny,allow
        Deny from all
        Allow from env=trusted_referer
    </Location>

The above code checks if the HTTP referer header includes your own domain. If not, access to the /osm directory will be denied. The backslash is used to escape the dot character. To add multiple hostnames as trusted referrers, use the following syntax.

SetEnvIf Referer (example\.com|www\.example\.com|map\.example\.com) trusted_referer

Save and close the file. Then test the syntax.

sudo apache2ctl -t

If the syntax is Ok, reload Apache for the changes to take effect.

sudo systemctl reload apache2

Auto-Renew TLS Certificate

You can create Cron job to automatically renew TLS certificate. Simply open root user’s crontab file.

sudo crontab -e

Add the following line at the bottom of the file.

@daily certbot renew --quiet && systemctl reload apache2

PostgreSQL Database and Web Server on Different Hosts

If your PostgreSQL and Apache web server reside on different hosts, then you need to edit the project.mml file on the Apache host.

nano /home/osm/openstreetmap-carto-4.20.0/project.mml

Find the following lines:

osm2pgsql: &osm2pgsql
  type: "postgis"
  dbname: "gis"
  key_field: ""
  geometry_field: "way"
  extent: "-20037508,-20037508,20037508,20037508"

Specify the IP address of PostgreSQL database server.

osm2pgsql: &osm2pgsql
  type: "postgis"
  host: "10.0.0.2"
  dbname: "gis"
  key_field: ""
  geometry_field: "way"
  extent: "-20037508,-20037508,20037508,20037508"

Save and close the file. Then build the Mapnik XML stylesheet with the carto map stylesheet compiler.

carto project.mml > style.xml

On the PostgreSQL database server, edit the main configuration file.

sudo nano /etc/postgresql/12/main/postgresql.conf

Add the following line to set PostgreSQL to listen on all interfaces.

listen_addresses = '*'

Save and close the file. Then edit the PostgreSQL client authentication configuration file.

sudo nano /etc/postgresql/12/main/pg_hba.conf

Add the following line at the end of the file to allow the osm user to login from the Apache host. Replace 10.0.0.1 with the IP address of Apache host.

host   gis   osm   10.0.0.1/32   trust

Save and close the file. Then restart PostgreSQL.

sudo systemctl restart postgresql

Restart the render daemon on the Apache host.

sudo systemctl restart renderd

You need to check the log of renderd. Make sure renderd does not produce any error in the log, or the map won’t be displayed.

sudo journalctl -eu renderd

You should also restrict access to port 5432 of the PostgreSQL database server. For example, you can use the following UFW command to allow the IP address of Apache host only.

sudo ufw allow in from 10.0.0.1 to any port 5432

Enable IPv6 on Contabo VPS

Contabo VPS supports IPv6. If your Contabo VPS doesn’t show IPv6 address, you need to run the following command as root (not sudo).

enable_ipv6

Then restart the VPS and it will be able to use IPv6.

Conclusion

I hope this tutorial helped you set up OpenStreetMap tile server on Ubuntu 20.04. As always, if you found this post useful, then subscribe to our free newsletter to get more tips and tricks. Take care 🙂

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32 Responses to “How to Set Up OpenStreetMap Tile Server on Ubuntu 20.04

  • Yury Tkachuk
    2 months ago

    At step 7 of your instruction, I get an error (text below):

    [email protected]:~# sudo -u postgres -i
    [email protected]:~$ cd /home/osm/openstreetmap-carto/
    [email protected]:/home/osm/openstreetmap-carto$ scripts/get-external-data.py
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "scripts/get-external-data.py", line 258, in 
        main()
      File "scripts/get-external-data.py", line 160, in main
        os.makedirs(data_dir, exist_ok=True)
      File "/usr/lib/python3.8/os.py", line 223, in makedirs
        mkdir(name, mode)
    PermissionError: [Errno 13] Permission denied: 'data'
    [email protected]:/home/osm/openstreetmap-carto$ scripts/get-external-data.py
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "scripts/get-external-data.py", line 258, in 
        main()
      File "scripts/get-external-data.py", line 160, in main
        os.makedirs(data_dir, exist_ok=True)
      File "/usr/lib/python3.8/os.py", line 223, in makedirs
        mkdir(name, mode)
    PermissionError: [Errno 13] Permission denied: 'data'
    [email protected]:/home/osm/openstreetmap-carto$
    • Grant permissions to the postgres user, as described in step 5.

      sudo setfacl -R -m u:postgres:rwx /home/osm/
      • Yury Tkachuk
        2 months ago

        Thank! I figured out the problem. You need to set your password for the user “postgres”, as well as for the user “root”.
        sudo passwd postgres
        I think this should be reflected in the instructions.

    • I didn’t set a password for postgres. And it works.

      • Yury Tkachuk
        2 months ago

        I did a clean installation according to your instructions, in step 5 everything went fine. I did not have to give permissions to the / home / osm / folder
        But in step 7, this problem arose, described above.
        When I began to give permissions to the user “postgres” to read the folder / home / osm / the system began to request the password for the user “postgres”
        After setting the password for the user “postgres”, the script worked correctly.
        Perhaps this is a special case, but it is better that it be reflected in the instructions

    • Because if you run the setfacl command in step 5, you are not logged in as the postgres user. So no password for postgres is needed.

      Some folks might need to use node cache in step 5, which will create files under /home/osm/. That’s why I put the setfacl command in step 5.

  • Yury Tkachuk
    2 months ago

    I also ask you to write an addition to the instructions, or give comments on how to update .osm.pbf correctly to download relevant information
    Or a script to automate this process
    Thank!

  • Geoffrey
    2 months ago

    I want to restrict map access with an api key. I have run into this article https://help.openstreetmap.org/questions/54221/implementing-api-key-based-access-control-for-mod-tiles

    Could you kindly comment on exactly how we can secure access for openlayers and leaflet map access with an API key.

    Thanks

  • Hi, can the map data be in other format instead of PBF ?

    • According to man osm2pgsql, only .osm and .pbf files are supported. PBF is actually a compressed form of a .osm file, if I remember it correctly.

    • There are some tools you can use to convert other formats to OSM. For example, sosi2osm can convert SOSI file to OSM file.

  • Kaushik
    1 month ago

    Hello

    This is an awesome tutorial. Thank you for doing this. I wish i found this a few weeks ago.
    I have a question
    How do I use a server to serve these OSM data so its vector tiles. If you can make a tutorial on that.

    Thank you.

  • Kaushik
    1 month ago

    Hello Again I just noticed that in the section

    PostgreSQL Database and Web Server on Different Hosts
    the file paths are not correct.

    sudo nano /etc/postgresql/10/main/postgresql.conf

    should be:
    sudo nano /etc/postgresql/12/main/postgresql.conf

  • Marshall
    1 month ago

    Thanks for the great information and tutorial. I really enjoy your website.

    After going through this tutorial thoroughly and creating / tweaking my own tile server, I would like to mention that the performance of the tile rendering can be greatly improved by adding the indexes provided within the openstreetmap-carto project. (From the INSTALL.md file)

    sudo -u postgres psql -d gis -f /home/osm/openstreetmap-carto/indexes.sql

    I did that, and I added 10 of my own additional indexes by monitoring the slower queries.

    • Kaushik
      1 month ago

      Hello Marshall, I noticed the rendering is very slow. I am running it for almost 2 days now and only till zoom level 14. Where did you get the other index files if you could please share. Also wanted to ask what zoom level are you getting ? for me it seems like after I get to zoom level 18 its not working any more.

      Thanks

      • Marshall
        1 month ago

        Hello Kaushik,

        I only pre-rendered to zoom level 12. That took my server a little less than 7 hours. Then for zoom levels 13 to 18 I calculated which tiles had an entry in the planet_osm_point database table, and only cached those. The world is 70% ocean, so a full render seemed a little excessive for those lower level zooms. I ended up using a fork of openstreetmap-carto called openstreetmap-carto-de because they had English names for foreign cities and countries. In openstreetmap-carto-de they use views of the tables, so the additional indexes I created don’t exactly translate to openstreetmap-carto.

        • Kaushik
          1 month ago

          OK I see. I thought of rendering till 16 but it seems like its going to take up a lot of space and time so I will stop once the zoom 14 is rendered. Also next time I will openstreetmap-carto-de its a good thing to have all names in English.

          ALso as i asked are you getting any zoom level above 18 like 19-22. it seems like the zoom level stops at 18 but as i understand it should go till 22. I am very new in this area. I would like to be able to zoom atleast till zoom 20.

        • Marshall
          1 month ago

          You just need to add MAXZOOM=20 to the [default] section of /etc/renderd.conf

          However, I set my max zoom to 22 and received this message :
          Renderd currently only supports up to zoom level 20

          I’m not sure if there is much benefit in going past zoom 18. There’s a reason that is the unlisted default option within renderd.

        • Kaushik
          4 weeks ago

          thank you. MAXZOOM=20 did the trick

  • I got error when running
    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:osmadmins/ppa

    Cannot add PPA: ‘ppa:~osmadmins…’
    ERROR: ‘~osmadmins’ user or team does not exist

    after checking the we there might be 2 reasons:
    1. clock not sync, run the following to fix this
    sudo apt-get install ntp
    sudo apt-get install ntpdate
    sudo ntpdate ntp.ubuntu.com

    2. Firewall blocking access
    https://github.com/tmatilai/vagrant-proxyconf/issues/171
    solution “sudo ufw disable”

  • davidknibb
    1 month ago

    All my stuff is setup with Debian10 – Buster. Do you think that there is anything from your Ubuntu setup that would fail/be a problem on buster ??
    Thanks
    David

  • Kaushik
    4 weeks ago

    Do any one think its worth sharing all the rendered maps till zoom 16 for North America with a torrent?

  • Hello,
    Thank you for the nice tutorial. I have successfully setup the server. However want to be able to update the map. I have a number of shapefiles containing street names. Please can anyone point me in the right direction on how I can update my server with the data. Also if there is no way out on that part, can I manually update the street names with iD or Potlatch. How can I setup iD or Potlatch editor for my OSM server or any other editor that will work for me. Thank you

  • Hello,
    if I try to import another * .pbf into the database it works, but nothing is shown on the map !?

    How can I add additional countries later?

  • Stan92
    1 week ago

    Hi Marshall and everybody,

    I plan to install by following this tutorial an osm server with the full planet..
    Could you please tell me if it will be ok with this following VPS config
    64 GB DDR4 RAM ECC) – 10 dedicated cores -2 TB SSD
    With this config, which lower level I will be able to use?

    I have two additional questions…

    – Can I set up a standalone Postgres server and 2 OSM Tiles servers that share the same PG server or it doesn’t make sense?
    – What would be the process for updating the tiles as well as the database?

    And @Xiao, thanks for this great tutorial..

  • Stan92
    4 days ago

    Hello,

    I m following the tutorial, for this part :
    Configure Apache -> tile.your-domain.com/osm/0/0/0.png

    I have to edit my /etc/hostname and /etc/hosts files and set my tile.your-domain.com

  • Anawaz
    2 days ago

    I added one country. I want to append nearby country. How to do?

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